How to format your references using the Geochemistry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geochemistry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Butler, D., 2001. The battle of Tugen Hills. Nature 410, 508–509.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mercer, J., Helenius, A., 2008. Vaccinia virus uses macropinocytosis and apoptotic mimicry to enter host cells. Science 320, 531–535.
A journal article with 3 authors
Domínguez-García, V., Pigolotti, S., Muñoz, M.A., 2014. Inherent directionality explains the lack of feedback loops in empirical networks. Sci. Rep. 4, 7497.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wu, J.J., Lin, J.F., Wang, X.C., Liu, Q.Q., Zhu, J.L., Xiao, Y.M., Chow, P., Jin, C.Q., 2014. Magnetic and structural transitions of SrFe2As2 at high pressure and low temperature. Sci. Rep. 4, 3685.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hersent, O., Petit, J.-P., Gurle, D., 2005. IP Telephony. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Tseng, K.-Y. (Ed.), 2009. Cortico-Subcortical Dynamics in Parkinson’s Disease, Contemporary Neuroscience. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ.
A chapter in an edited book
Jacob, G., Debar, H., Filiol, E., 2009. Malware Behavioral Detection by Attribute-Automata Using Abstraction from Platform and Language, in: Kirda, E., Jha, S., Balzarotti, D. (Eds.), Recent Advances in Intrusion Detection: 12th International Symposium, RAID 2009, Saint-Malo, France, September 23-25, 2009. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 81–100.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geochemistry.

Blog post
Carpineti, A., 2016. Could The Big Bang Actually Be A Big Bounce? [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2015. Race to the Top: Education Could Better Support Grantees and Help Them Address Capacity Challenges (No. GAO-15-295). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cox, A.M., 2017. Functional Gain and Change Mechanisms in Post-Production Complex Systems (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Quain, J.R., 2017. A Turning Point For Plug-In Hybrids. New York Times B4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Butler, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Butler, 2001; Mercer and Helenius, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Mercer and Helenius, 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Wu et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeochemistry
ISSN (print)1611-5864

Other styles