How to format your references using the Qualitative Psychology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Qualitative Psychology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Macilwain, C. (2000). Congress wakes up to climate change. Nature, 405(6785), 385.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dijk, D.-J., & Skeldon, A. C. (2015). Biological rhythms: Human sleep before the industrial era. Nature, 527(7577), 176–177.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bristow, C. S., Bailey, S. D., & Lancaster, N. (2000). The sedimentary structure of linear sand dunes. Nature, 406(6791), 56–59.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Howell, S. M., Fiacco, S. V., Takahashi, T. T., Jalali-Yazdi, F., Millward, S. W., Hu, B., Wang, P., & Roberts, R. W. (2014). Serum stable natural peptides designed by mRNA display. Scientific Reports, 4, 6008.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Turner, J. R., & Durham, T. A. (2008). Integrated Cardiac Safety: Assessment Methodologies for Noncardiac Drugs in Discovery, Development, and Postmarketing Surveillance. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Azócar Fernández, P. I. (2014). Paradigms in Cartography: An Epistemological Review of the 20th and 21st Centuries (M. F. Buchroithner, Ed.). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Kaminsky, R., Kallweit, S., Rossi, M., Morbiducci, U., Scalise, L., Verdonck, P., & Tomasini, E. P. (2008). PIV Measurements of Flows in Artificial Heart Valves. In A. Schroeder & C. E. Willert (Eds.), Particle Image Velocimetry: New Developments and Recent Applications (pp. 55–72). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Qualitative Psychology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, April 2). Liver Disorder in Adult Mice Repaired Via Gene Editing. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1982). GAO Reports Concerning Federal Student Financial Aid Programs (117445). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Boylan, S. A. (2017). An exploratory case study: U. S. Army’s leadership development for organizational leaders [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, S. (1995, August 13). Children’s Books. New York Times, 723.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Macilwain, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Dijk & Skeldon, 2015; Macilwain, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Dijk & Skeldon, 2015)
  • Three authors: (Bristow et al., 2000)
  • 6 or more authors: (Howell et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleQualitative Psychology
AbbreviationQual. Psychol.
ISSN (print)2326-3598
ISSN (online)2326-3601

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