How to format your references using the Qualitative Psychology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Qualitative Psychology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Perkel, J. M. (2015). The trouble with reference rot. Nature, 521(7550), 111–112.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pedersen, T. R., & Gerken, E. A. (2005). Creation of visible artificial optical emissions in the aurora by high-power radio waves. Nature, 433(7025), 498–500.
A journal article with 3 authors
Shaw, S. L., Kamyar, R., & Ehrhardt, D. W. (2003). Sustained microtubule treadmilling in Arabidopsis cortical arrays. Science (New York, N.Y.), 300(5626), 1715–1718.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Skålén, K., Gustafsson, M., Rydberg, E. K., Hultén, L. M., Wiklund, O., Innerarity, T. L., & Borén, J. (2002). Subendothelial retention of atherogenic lipoproteins in early atherosclerosis. Nature, 417(6890), 750–754.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Saleh, S. A., & Rahman, M. A. (2010). An Introduction to Wavelet Modulated Inverters. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Zambon, G. (2007). Beginning JSP, JSF, and Tomcat Web Development: From Novice to Professional (M. Sekler, Ed.). Apress.
A chapter in an edited book
Miltenberger, R. G., Bloom, S. E., Sanchez, S., & Valbuena, D. A. (2016). Functional Assessment. In N. N. Singh (Ed.), Handbook of Evidence-Based Practices in Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (pp. 69–97). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Qualitative Psychology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, December 2). For Life To Form On A Planet It Needs To Orbit The Right Kind Of Star. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1997). Student Financial Aid Information: Systems Architecture Needed to Improve Programs’ Efficiency (AIMD-97-122). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Vernold, E. L. (2008). Special education teacher resiliency: What keeps teachers in the field? [Doctoral dissertation]. University of North Carolina.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M. W. (2015, July 16). Puerto Rico Misses First Debt Payment. New York Times, B2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Perkel, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Pedersen & Gerken, 2005; Perkel, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Pedersen & Gerken, 2005)
  • Three authors: (Shaw et al., 2003)
  • 6 or more authors: (Skålén et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleQualitative Psychology
AbbreviationQual. Psychol.
ISSN (print)2326-3598
ISSN (online)2326-3601

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