How to format your references using the Qualitative Psychology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Qualitative Psychology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Southwood, D. (2012). Research collaboration: When international partnerships go wrong. Nature, 488(7412), 451–453.
A journal article with 2 authors
Woolf, C. J., & Bloechlinger, S. (2002). Neuroscience. It takes more than two to Nogo. Science (New York, N.Y.), 297(5584), 1132–1134.
A journal article with 3 authors
Luo, J., Shen, L., & Zheng, D. (2014). Association between vitamin C intake and lung cancer: a dose-response meta-analysis. Scientific Reports, 4, 6161.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Catalanotto, C., Azzalin, G., Macino, G., & Cogoni, C. (2000). Gene silencing in worms and fungi. Nature, 404(6775), 245.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lhabitant, F.-S. (2004). Hedge Funds. John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
An edited book
Osei-Bryson, K.-M., Mansingh, G., & Rao, L. (Eds.). (2014). Knowledge Management for Development: Domains, Strategies and Technologies for Developing Countries (Vol. 35). Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Li, Y., Zou, H., Moursy, Y., Iskander, R., Sobot, R., & Louërat, M.-M. (2015). Optimization and Co-simulation of an Implantable Telemetry System by Linking System Models to Nonlinear Circuits. In M. Fakhfakh, E. Tlelo-Cuautle, & P. Siarry (Eds.), Computational Intelligence in Analog and Mixed-Signal (AMS) and Radio-Frequency (RF) Circuit Design (pp. 83–113). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Qualitative Psychology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2013, November 27). Caution: Dead Whale Contents Under Pressure. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2014). Federal Software Licenses: Most Agencies Have Reported Planned Actions to Address Our Prior Recommendations on Software License Management (GAO-14-835R). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Policarpio, A. M. (2014). Interventions for children with Autism Spectrum Disorder, typically developing siblings, and parents: A systematic review of the literature [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Grynbaum, M. M. (2017, May 17). White House Is Fighting A Familiar Foe: The Press. New York Times, A14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Southwood, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Southwood, 2012; Woolf & Bloechlinger, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Woolf & Bloechlinger, 2002)
  • Three authors: (Luo et al., 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (Catalanotto et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleQualitative Psychology
AbbreviationQual. Psychol.
ISSN (print)2326-3598
ISSN (online)2326-3601

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