How to format your references using the Qualitative Psychology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Qualitative Psychology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Marshall, S. (2014). Climate change. Glacier retreat crosses a line. Science (New York, N.Y.), 345(6199), 872.
A journal article with 2 authors
Koocher, G. P., & Keith-Spiegel, P. (2010). Peers nip misconduct in the bud. Nature, 466(7305), 438–440.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bailor, M. H., Sun, X., & Al-Hashimi, H. M. (2010). Topology links RNA secondary structure with global conformation, dynamics, and adaptation. Science (New York, N.Y.), 327(5962), 202–206.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Silva, J. M., Marran, K., Parker, J. S., Silva, J., Golding, M., Schlabach, M. R., Elledge, S. J., Hannon, G. J., & Chang, K. (2008). Profiling essential genes in human mammary cells by multiplex RNAi screening. Science (New York, N.Y.), 319(5863), 617–620.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Millon, T., & Grossman, S. (2007). Moderating Severe Personality Disorders. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Helsen, J. A. (2010). Biomaterials: A Tantalus Experience (Y. Missirlis, Ed.). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
ElKady, S. K., & Abdelsalam, H. M. (2016). A Modified Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm for Solving Capacitated Maximal Covering Location Problem in Healthcare Systems. In A.-E. Hassanien, C. Grosan, & M. Fahmy Tolba (Eds.), Applications of Intelligent Optimization in Biology and Medicine: Current Trends and Open Problems (pp. 117–133). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Qualitative Psychology.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2016, August 15). The Mysterious Missing Magnetic Monopole. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1985). [Query Concerning Legality of Transfer of Japan-United States Friendship Commission Funds] (B-217093). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lee, B. K. (2015). Tracking of truck flows for drayage efficiency analysis [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Urbina, I. (2015, November 9). Tricked While on Land, Abused or Killed at Sea. New York Times, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Marshall, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Koocher & Keith-Spiegel, 2010; Marshall, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Koocher & Keith-Spiegel, 2010)
  • Three authors: (Bailor et al., 2010)
  • 6 or more authors: (Silva et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleQualitative Psychology
AbbreviationQual. Psychol.
ISSN (print)2326-3598
ISSN (online)2326-3601

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