How to format your references using the Qualitative Psychology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Qualitative Psychology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Czeisler, C. A. (2013). Perspective: casting light on sleep deficiency. Nature, 497(7450), S13.
A journal article with 2 authors
Outten, C. E., & O’Halloran, T. V. (2001). Femtomolar sensitivity of metalloregulatory proteins controlling zinc homeostasis. Science (New York, N.Y.), 292(5526), 2488–2492.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hauke, P., Tagliacozzo, L., & Lewenstein, M. (2012). Physics. Speeding up quantum field theories. Science (New York, N.Y.), 336(6085), 1122–1123.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Wang, L., Yu, P., Zhao, L., Tian, C., Zhao, D., Zhou, W., Yin, J., Wang, R., & Fu, H. (2014). B and N isolate-doped graphitic carbon nanosheets from nitrogen-containing ion-exchanged resins for enhanced oxygen reduction. Scientific Reports, 4, 5184.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Thomas, C. G. (2014). Greece. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Banu, N. (2016). Livelihood and Wellbeing in the Urban Fringe (S. Fazal, Ed.). Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Sakawa, M., Yano, H., & Nishizaki, I. (2013). Fuzzy Linear Programming. In H. Yano & I. Nishizaki (Eds.), Linear and Multiobjective Programming with Fuzzy Stochastic Extensions (pp. 105–148). Springer US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Qualitative Psychology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, September 17). China’s Smog Kills More Than A Million Each Year – But There’s A Clearer Road Ahead. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1999). Telecommunications: FCC Does Not Know if All Required Fees Are Collected (RCED-99-216). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Vaughn, E. L. (2013). Find me on Facebook: A new typology for categorizing online personalities [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, M. (1992, September 28). THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: The Democrats; Clinton Uses Farm Speech to Begin New Offensive. New York Times, A13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Czeisler, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Czeisler, 2013; Outten & O’Halloran, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Outten & O’Halloran, 2001)
  • Three authors: (Hauke et al., 2012)
  • 6 or more authors: (Wang et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleQualitative Psychology
AbbreviationQual. Psychol.
ISSN (print)2326-3598
ISSN (online)2326-3601

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