How to format your references using the Qualitative Psychology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Qualitative Psychology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Corkum, P. (2000). Laser physics. Attosecond pulses at last. Nature, 403(6772), 845–846.
A journal article with 2 authors
Karim, S. S. A., & Karim, Q. A. (2010). AIDS research must link to local policy. Nature, 463(7282), 733–734.
A journal article with 3 authors
Milinski, M., Semmann, D., & Krambeck, H.-J. (2002). Reputation helps solve the “tragedy of the commons.” Nature, 415(6870), 424–426.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Davis, E., Becker, K., Dziak, R., Cassidy, J., Wang, K., & Lilley, M. (2004). Hydrological response to a seafloor spreading episode on the Juan de Fuca ridge. Nature, 430(6997), 335–338.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Matthews, C. (2012). Engineers’ Data Book. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Hirano, H.-Y., Sano, Y., Hirai, A., & Sasaki, T. (Eds.). (2008). Rice Biology in the Genomics Era (Vol. 62). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Munoz-Garcia, F., & Toro-Gonzalez, D. (2016). Sequential-Move Games with Complete Information. In D. Toro-Gonzalez (Ed.), Strategy and Game Theory: Practice Exercises with Answers (pp. 107–143). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Qualitative Psychology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, July 16). Chandra X-ray Observatory Turns 15! Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1978). The Department of the Interior’s Computerized Resources Information Bank (No. EMD-78-17). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Parsons, J. R. (2010). Throwing a wrench in the translational machinery: Discovery of RNA ligands by fluorescence techniques (Doctoral dissertation). University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. (2010, January 22). For Knicks’ Lee, a Grandfather, Mentor and Pal. New York Times, p. B9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Corkum, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Corkum, 2000, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Karim & Karim, 2010)
  • Three authors: (Milinski, Semmann, & Krambeck, 2002)
  • 6 or more authors: (Davis et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleQualitative Psychology
AbbreviationQual. Psychol.
ISSN (print)2326-3598
ISSN (online)2326-3601

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