How to format your references using the QJM: An International Journal of Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for QJM: An International Journal of Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Berlin A. Microbiology. No barriers to cellulose breakdown. Science. 2013 Dec 20;342(6165):1454–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kidder SQ, Vonder Haar TH. Atmospheric science. Observing weather from space. Science. 2010 Feb 26;327(5969):1085–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
Altewischer E, van Exter MP, Woerdman JP. Plasmon-assisted transmission of entangled photons. Nature. 2002 Jul 18;418(6895):304–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Aanen DK, de Fine Licht HH, Debets AJM, Kerstes NAG, Hoekstra RF, Boomsma JJ. High symbiont relatedness stabilizes mutualistic cooperation in fungus-growing termites. Science. 2009 Nov 20;326(5956):1103–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pérez A. Mobile Networks Architecture. Hoboken, NJ USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
MacDonald Gibson J. Environmental Burden of Disease Assessment. Brammer A, Davidson C, Folley T, Launay F, Thomsen J, editors. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2013. XXXII, 489 p. 109 illus., 23 illus. in color. (Environmental Science and Technology Library; vol. 24).
A chapter in an edited book
Masuta N, Yagihashi M, Narita H, Fujimoto H. A Non-invasive Method to Measure Joint Range of Motion for Hip Joints. In: Shirase K, Aoyagi S, editors. Service Robotics and Mechatronics: Selected Papers of the International Conference on Machine Automation ICMA2008. London: Springer; 2010. p. 27–32.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for QJM: An International Journal of Medicine.

Blog post
Carpineti A. Scientists Hone In On How White Dwarfs Go Supernova. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Space Shuttle: NASA Must Reduce Costs Further to Operate Within Future Projected Funds. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1995 Jun. Report No.: NSIAD-95-118.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lakin BK. Reading First program effects on students with disabilities [Doctoral dissertation]. [ St. Charles, MO]: Lindenwood University; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley B, Morris W. August Wilson: Then. Now. Forever? New York Times. 2017 Jan 11;AR10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleQJM: An International Journal of Medicine
ISSN (print)1460-2393
ISSN (online)1460-2725
ScopeGeneral Medicine

Other styles