How to format your references using the Pulse citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pulse. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Huch M: Regenerative biology: The versatile and plastic liver. Nature 2015;517:155–156.
A journal article with 2 authors
Purvis A, Hector A: Getting the measure of biodiversity. Nature 2000;405:212–219.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhao M-H, Chen X-P, Wang Q: Wetting failure of hydrophilic surfaces promoted by surface roughness. Sci Rep 2014;4:5376.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Head JJ, Bloch JI, Hastings AK, Bourque JR, Cadena EA, Herrera FA, et al.: Giant boid snake from the Palaeocene neotropics reveals hotter past equatorial temperatures. Nature 2009;457:715–717.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
German Geotechnical Society: Taschenbuch für den Tunnelbau 2014. D-69451 Weinheim, Germany, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH, 2013.
An edited book
Geertman S, Stillwell J (eds): Planning Support Systems Best Practice and New Methods. Dordrecht, Springer Netherlands, 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Zhang K, Shen X: Health Data Sharing with Misbehavior Detection; in Shen X (sherman) (ed): Security and Privacy for Mobile Healthcare Networks. Cham, Springer International Publishing, 2015, pp 47–80.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pulse.

Blog post
Evans K: New Summit Announced To Highlight Much-Needed Optimism In Conservation. IFLScience 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30];Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Airline Deregulation: Changes in Airfares, Service Quality, and Barriers to Entry. Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cole Jackson M: National school reform: the benefits of civility and ethics instruction 2015;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Leland J: Faith and Family, in Transition. New York Times 2017;MB1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePulse
AbbreviationPulse (Basel)
ISSN (print)2235-8676
ISSN (online)2235-8668

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