How to format your references using the Pulse citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pulse. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Butler D. Institutes prepare for pioneering bioinformatics work. Nature. 2001 Jul;412(6843):106.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ruskov R, Tahan C. Quantum Processing. Catching the quantum sound wave. Science. 2014 Oct;346(6206):165–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hsu A-L, Murphy CT, Kenyon C. Regulation of aging and age-related disease by DAF-16 and heat-shock factor. Science. 2003 May;300(5622):1142–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Jia J, Tong C, Wang B, Luo L, Jiang J. Hedgehog signalling activity of Smoothened requires phosphorylation by protein kinase A and casein kinase I. Nature. 2004 Dec;432(7020):1045–50.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ho RJY, Gibaldi M. Biotechnology and Biopharmaceuticals. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2003.
An edited book
Bjorner A, Cohen F, Concini CD, Procesi C, Salvetti M, editors. Configuration Spaces: Geometry, Combinatorics and Topology. Pisa: Scuola Normale Superiore; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Patil GP, Gore SD, Taillie* C. Estimating Prevalence of a Trait. In: Gore SD, Taillie C, editors. Composite Sampling: A Novel Method to Accomplish Observational Economy in Environmental Studies. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2011; pp 81–6.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pulse.

Blog post
Andrew E. Can You Really Be GM-free? Why New European Laws Pose A Moral Dilemma [Internet]. IFLScience. 2015 Aug [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Hazardous Materials Rail Shipments: A Review of Emergency Response Information in Selected Train Documents. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2016.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Shelby KR. Systems Engineering Knowledge Asset (SEKA) Management for Higher Performing Engineering Teams: People, Process and Technology toward Effective Knowledge-Workers. 2013

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon M. Table Tennis Beside a Bank, and Other Contests Intended to ‘Reclaim’ Midtown. New York Times. 2012 May;D6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePulse
AbbreviationPulse (Basel)
ISSN (print)2235-8676
ISSN (online)2235-8668

Other styles