How to format your references using the Intelligence citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Intelligence. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pace, N. R. (2006). Time for a change. Nature, 441(7091), 289.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tripati, A., & Elderfield, H. (2005). Deep-sea temperature and circulation changes at the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum. Science (New York, N.Y.), 308(5730), 1894–1898.
A journal article with 3 authors
Roberts, L., Stone, R., & Sugden, A. (2009). The rise of restoration ecology. Science (New York, N.Y.), 325(5940), 555.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Nakazaki, T., Okumoto, Y., Horibata, A., Yamahira, S., Teraishi, M., Nishida, H., … Tanisaka, T. (2003). Mobilization of a transposon in the rice genome. Nature, 421(6919), 170–172.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Laheurte, J.-M., Ripoll, C., Paret, D., & Loussert, C. (2014). UHF RFID Technologies for Identification and Traceability. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Uden, L., Heričko, M., & Ting, I.-H. (Eds.). (2015). Knowledge Management in Organizations: 10th International Conference, KMO 2015, Maribor, Slovenia, August 24-28, 2015, Proceedings (1st ed. 2015, Vol. 224). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Buchard, A., Bakewell, C. M., Weiner, J., & Williams, C. K. (2012). Recent Developments in Catalytic Activation of Renewable Resources for Polymer Synthesis. In M. A. R. Meier, B. M. Weckhuysen, & P. C. A. Bruijnincx (Eds.), Organometallics and Renewables (pp. 175–224). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Intelligence.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, July 24). New Eye Drops Can Dissolve Cataracts With No Need For Surgery. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1996). Tax Systems Modernization: Cyberfile Project Was Poorly Planned and Managed (No. AIMD-96-140). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Takayama, M. (2010). The development of writing in Japanese and English of JHL speakers and the dynamics of bilingual learning (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rueck, K. (1972, June 11). “ LITTLE TIME FOR EXTRAS”; What’s a Stewardess. New York Times, p. travel and resorts-summer vacations-part 1XX4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Pace, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Pace, 2006; Tripati & Elderfield, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Tripati & Elderfield, 2005)
  • Three authors: (Roberts, Stone, & Sugden, 2009)
  • 6 or more authors: (Nakazaki et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleIntelligence
ISSN (print)0160-2896
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
Developmental and Educational Psychology
Experimental and Cognitive Psychology

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