How to format your references using the Intelligence citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Intelligence. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Jeltsch, A. (2010). Molecular biology. Phylogeny of methylomes. Science (New York, N.Y.), 328(5980), 837–838.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kawai, N., & Matsuzawa, T. (2000). Numerical memory span in a chimpanzee. Nature, 403(6765), 39–40.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lohmann, C., Myhr, K. L., & Wong, R. O. L. (2002). Transmitter-evoked local calcium release stabilizes developing dendrites. Nature, 418(6894), 177–181.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Noctor, S. C., Flint, A. C., Weissman, T. A., Dammerman, R. S., & Kriegstein, A. R. (2001). Neurons derived from radial glial cells establish radial units in neocortex. Nature, 409(6821), 714–720.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
West, B. J., & Griffin, L. A. (2005). Biodynamics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Fet, V., & Popov, A. (Eds.). (2007). Biogeography and Ecology of Bulgaria (Vol. 82). Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Barroero, T., Motta, G., & Pignatelli, G. (2010). Business Capabilities Centric Enterprise Architecture. In P. Bernus, G. Doumeingts, & M. Fox (Eds.), Enterprise Architecture, Integration and Interoperability: IFIP TC 5 International Conference, EAI2N 2010, Held as Part of WCC 2010, Brisbane, Australia, September 20-23, 2010. Proceedings (pp. 32–43). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Intelligence.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2016, December 20). There’s A Massive Metal Dragon Hiding Inside Earth’s Outer Core. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1994). Longer Combination Trucks: Potential Infrastructure Impacts, Productivity Benefits, and Safety Concerns (RCED-94-106). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lewis, T. L. (2010). Quantitative approach to technical performance measurement and technical risk analysis utilizing Bayesian methods and Monte Carlo simulation [Doctoral dissertation]. George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Lohr, S., & Alderman, L. (2017, May 15). The Fallout From a Global Cyberattack: ‘A Battle We’re Fighting Every Day.’ New York Times, A9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Jeltsch, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Jeltsch, 2010; Kawai & Matsuzawa, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kawai & Matsuzawa, 2000)
  • Three authors: (Lohmann et al., 2002)
  • 6 or more authors: (Noctor et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleIntelligence
ISSN (print)0160-2896
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
Developmental and Educational Psychology
Experimental and Cognitive Psychology

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