How to format your references using the Intelligence citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Intelligence. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Eagleman, D. M. (2004). Neuroscience. The where and when of intention. Science (New York, N.Y.), 303(5661), 1144–1146.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lin, J. Y., & Fisher, D. E. (2007). Melanocyte biology and skin pigmentation. Nature, 445(7130), 843–850.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lavine, M., Szuromi, P., & Coontz, R. (2011). Materials for grid energy. Electricity now and when. Introduction. Science (New York, N.Y.), 334(6058), 921.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Ling, K., Doughman, R. L., Firestone, A. J., Bunce, M. W., & Anderson, R. A. (2002). Type I gamma phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinase targets and regulates focal adhesions. Nature, 420(6911), 89–93.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Murphy, D. B., & Davidson, M. W. (2012). Fundamentals of Light Microscopy and Electronic Imaging. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Sauerwein, W., Wittig, A., Moss, R., & Nakagawa, Y. (Eds.). (2012). Neutron Capture Therapy: Principles and Applications. Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Bertoni, A., Folgieri, R., & Valentini, G. (2005). Feature Selection Combined with Random Subspace Ensemble for Gene Expression Based Diagnosis of Malignancies. In B. Apolloni, M. Marinaro, & R. Tagliaferri (Eds.), Biological and Artificial Intelligence Environments: 15th Italian Workshop on Neural Nets, WIRN VIETRI 2004 (pp. 29–35). Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Intelligence.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2017, June 5). Reintroduced Beavers In England Help Protect Against Floods And Soil Erosion. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1981). Unanswered Questions on Educating Handicapped Children in Local Public Schools (HRD-81-43). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rodman, R. A. (2010). Casual factors that contribute to gender bias in career choice among junior high school age females [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schlossberg, T., & Schwartz, J. (2017, January 10). A Bumblebee Gets New Protection on Obama’s Way Out. New York Times, A14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Eagleman, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Eagleman, 2004; Lin & Fisher, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lin & Fisher, 2007)
  • Three authors: (Lavine et al., 2011)
  • 6 or more authors: (Ling et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleIntelligence
ISSN (print)0160-2896
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
Developmental and Educational Psychology
Experimental and Cognitive Psychology

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