How to format your references using the Intelligence citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Intelligence. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wadman, M. (2000). Women and ethnic minorities needed for US skills gap. Nature, 404(6780), 800.
A journal article with 2 authors
Maechler, P., & Wollheim, C. B. (2001). Mitochondrial function in normal and diabetic beta-cells. Nature, 414(6865), 807–812.
A journal article with 3 authors
Eagle, N., Macy, M., & Claxton, R. (2010). Network diversity and economic development. Science (New York, N.Y.), 328(5981), 1029–1031.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Andersson, R. L., Ström, V., Gedde, U. W., Mallon, P. E., Hedenqvist, M. S., & Olsson, R. T. (2014). Micromechanics of ultra-toughened electrospun PMMA/PEO fibres as revealed by in-situ tensile testing in an electron microscope. Scientific Reports, 4, 6335.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lacalle, D., & Parrilla, D. (2015). The Energy World is Flat. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Stets, J. E., & Turner, J. H. (Eds.). (2014). Handbook of the Sociology of Emotions: Volume II. Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Modig, C., Westerlund, L., & Olsson, P.-E. (2007). Oocyte zona pellucida proteins. In P. J. Babin, J. Cerdà, & E. Lubzens (Eds.), The Fish Oocyte: From Basic Studies to Biotechnological Applications (pp. 113–139). Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Intelligence.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, August 20). India Opens World’s First Ever Solar-Powered Airport. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1992). High Risk Series: NASA Contract Management (HR-93-11). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McLeod, D. J. (2010). From fear to freedom: Overcoming obstacles and living truthfully in a role [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), S. K. (2004, January 21). World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Compensation For Theater Siege. New York Times, A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wadman, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Maechler & Wollheim, 2001; Wadman, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Maechler & Wollheim, 2001)
  • Three authors: (Eagle et al., 2010)
  • 6 or more authors: (Andersson et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleIntelligence
ISSN (print)0160-2896
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
Developmental and Educational Psychology
Experimental and Cognitive Psychology

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