How to format your references using the Intelligence citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Intelligence. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Elgersma, Y. (2015). Neurodevelopmental disease: A molecular tightrope. Nature, 526(7571), 50–51.
A journal article with 2 authors
Treves, A., & Bruskotter, J. (2014). Ecology. Tolerance for predatory wildlife. Science (New York, N.Y.), 344(6183), 476–477.
A journal article with 3 authors
Grirrane, A., Corma, A., & García, H. (2008). Gold-catalyzed synthesis of aromatic azo compounds from anilines and nitroaromatics. Science (New York, N.Y.), 322(5908), 1661–1664.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Lim, S. Y., Ahn, S.-H., Park, H., Lee, J., Choi, K., Choi, C., Choi, J. H., Park, E.-M., & Choi, Y.-H. (2014). Transcriptional regulation of adrenomedullin by oncostatin M in human astroglioma cells: implications for tumor invasion and migration. Scientific Reports, 4, 6444.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lad, B. K., Shrivastava, D., & Kulkarni, M. S. (2016). Machine Tool Reliability. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Molinari, E. (2010). Psicologia clinica del dolore (G. Castelnuovo, Ed.). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Marín-Arroyo, A. B. (2013). New Opportunities for Previously Excavated Sites: Paleoeconomy as a Human Evolutionary Indicator at Tabun Cave (Israel). In J. L. Clark & J. D. Speth (Eds.), Zooarchaeology and Modern Human Origins: Human Hunting Behavior during the Later Pleistocene (pp. 59–75). Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Intelligence.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2017, February 7). Japanese Mission To Clean Up Space Junk Ends In Total Failure. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1974). Activities of the National Institute of Education, Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (B-164031(1)). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ladd, R. J. (2014). A Study of Alternative Education Programs in the State of Missouri [Doctoral dissertation]. Lindenwood University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S. (2004, September 4). The Region, a Primer. New York Times, A9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Elgersma, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Elgersma, 2015; Treves & Bruskotter, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Treves & Bruskotter, 2014)
  • Three authors: (Grirrane et al., 2008)
  • 6 or more authors: (Lim et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleIntelligence
ISSN (print)0160-2896
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
Developmental and Educational Psychology
Experimental and Cognitive Psychology

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