How to format your references using the Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Melton L (2005) Imaging: the big picture. Nature 437:775–779
A journal article with 2 authors
Bendor D, Wang X (2005) The neuronal representation of pitch in primate auditory cortex. Nature 436:1161–1165
A journal article with 3 authors
Luo ZX, Crompton AW, Sun AL (2001) A new mammaliaform from the early Jurassic and evolution of mammalian characteristics. Science 292:1535–1540
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Rini M, Magnes B-Z, Pines E, Nibbering ETJ (2003) Real-time observation of bimodal proton transfer in acid-base pairs in water. Science 301:349–352

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fitschen K (2013) Building Reliable Trading Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Chen Y-P, Lim M-H (2008) Linkage in Evolutionary Computation. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Borgefors G, Nyström I, di Baja GS (2008) Discrete Skeletons from Distance Transforms in 2D and 3D. In: Siddiqi K, Pizer SM (eds) Medial Representations: Mathematics, Algorithms and Applications. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 155–190

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) Astronaut Safety Concerns Confound Longterm Space Exploration. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2008) Digital Television Transition: Implementation of the Converter Box Subsidy Program Is Under Way, but Preparedness to Manage an Increase in Subsidy Demand Is Unclear. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gonzaga Reed RR (2017) The Impact of a Community-Based College Access Program at a Midwestern Institution. Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg B (2017) School Life. New York Times C5

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCancer Immunology, Immunotherapy
AbbreviationCancer Immunol. Immunother.
ISSN (print)0340-7004
ISSN (online)1432-0851
ScopeCancer Research
Immunology and Allergy

Other styles