How to format your references using the Public Health Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Public Health Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Warrant E. ORGANISMAL BIOLOGY. Visual tracking in the dead of night. Science 2015;348:1212–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Birks HJB, Birks HH. Paleoecology. The rise and fall of forests. Science 2004;305:484–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Qvarnström A, Pärt T, Sheldon BC. Adaptive plasticity in mate preference linked to differences in reproductive effort. Nature 2000;405:344–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Rodrigo-Navarro A, Rico P, Saadeddin A, Garcia AJ, Salmeron-Sanchez M. Living biointerfaces based on non-pathogenic bacteria to direct cell differentiation. Sci Rep 2014;4:5849.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Svensson H. Cable-Stayed Bridges. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2012.
An edited book
Fleagle JG, Gilbert CC, editors. Elwyn Simons: A Search for Origins. New York, NY: Springer; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Cataldo F. From Elemental Carbon to Complex Macromolecular Networks in Space. In: Ehrenfreund P, Irvine W, Owen T, Becker L, Blank J, Brucato J, et al., editors. Astrobiology: Future Perspectives. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2005. p. 97–126.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Public Health Research.

Blog post
Fang J. Astronomers Spot ENORMOUS Black Hole From The Dawn Of The Universe. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority: Information on Contracting at Washington Dulles International Airport and Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport Between 1992 and 1999. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2000.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Romer C. WhatsUpDoc: A Patient Portal Technology. Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach; 2017; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hubbard B, Schmitt E, Gordon MR. Cease-Fire in Syria Holds, Giving Hope to Peace Talks. New York Times 2016:A11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titlePublic Health Research
AbbreviationPublic Health Res. (Southampt)
ISSN (print)2050-4381
ISSN (online)2050-439X

Other styles