How to format your references using the Conservation Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Conservation Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Chan, F.K.-M. (2014). Cell biology: A guardian angel of cell integrity. Nature, 513, 38–40.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dubcovsky, J. & Dvorak, J. (2007). Genome plasticity a key factor in the success of polyploid wheat under domestication. Science, 316, 1862–1866.
A journal article with 3 authors
Discher, D.E., Janmey, P. & Wang, Y.-L. (2005). Tissue cells feel and respond to the stiffness of their substrate. Science, 310, 1139–1143.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Sabín, C., White, A., Hackermuller, L. & Fuentes, I. (2014). Impurities as a quantum thermometer for a Bose-Einstein Condensate. Sci. Rep., 4, 6436.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kwok, S. (2011). Organic Matter in the Universe. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Dayou, J. (2014). Ground-Based Aerosol Optical Depth Measurement Using Sunphotometers. SpringerBriefs in Applied Sciences and Technology. Springer, Singapore.
A chapter in an edited book
Terasaki, H. & Komizo, Y.-I. (2010). Direct Analysis of Solidification-Mode During Welding for the Assessment of Hot-Cracking. In: In-situ Studies with Photons, Neutrons and Electrons Scattering (eds. Kannengiesser, T., Babu, S.S., Komizo, Y.-I. & Ramirez, A.J.). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 77–83.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Conservation Letters.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2015). 9 Science-Backed Studying Tips [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2010). Charter Schools: Education Could Do More to Assist Charter Schools with Applying for Discretionary Grants ( No. GAO-11-89). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Garcia, M.J. (2009). Teacher knowledge of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and effective classroom interventions (Doctoral dissertation).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Eligon, J. (2017). From Angry Student to Board Member. New York Times, A10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Chan 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Dubcovsky & Dvorak 2007; Chan 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Dubcovsky & Dvorak 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Sabín et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleConservation Letters
AbbreviationConserv. Lett.
ISSN (online)1755-263X
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Nature and Landscape Conservation

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