How to format your references using the Conservation Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Conservation Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stone, E.C. (2001). Planetary science. News from the edge of interstellar space. Science, 293, 55–56.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dustin, M.L. & Colman, D.R. (2002). Neural and immunological synaptic relations. Science, 298, 785–789.
A journal article with 3 authors
Germain, R.N., Robey, E.A. & Cahalan, M.D. (2012). A decade of imaging cellular motility and interaction dynamics in the immune system. Science, 336, 1676–1681.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Barwick, B., Park, H.S., Kwon, O.-H., Baskin, J.S. & Zewail, A.H. (2008). 4D imaging of transient structures and morphologies in ultrafast electron microscopy. Science, 322, 1227–1231.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Plantin, J.-C. (2014). Participatory Mapping. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Marks, J.M. & Dunkin, B.J. (eds.). (2013). Principles of Flexible Endoscopy for Surgeons. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Bakonyi, M. & Lopushanskaya, E.V. (2010). Moment Problems for Real Measures on the Unit Circle. In: Recent Advances in Operator Theory in Hilbert and Krein Spaces (eds. Behrndt, J., Förster, K.-H. & Trunk, C.). Birkhäuser, Basel, pp. 49–60.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Conservation Letters.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2015). Check Out These Pumpkins Exploding, Spewing Molten Iron And Levitating [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2015). Internet Protocol Transition: FCC Should Strengthen Its Data Collection Efforts to Assess the Transition’s Effects ( No. GAO-16-167). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Robinson-Scott, D. (2010). Policy analysis of the Chafee Foster Care Independence Act of 1999 (Doctoral dissertation).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg, B. (2017). American Anarchist. New York Times, C8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Stone 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Stone 2001; Dustin & Colman 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Dustin & Colman 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Barwick et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleConservation Letters
AbbreviationConserv. Lett.
ISSN (online)1755-263X
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Nature and Landscape Conservation

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