How to format your references using the Public Health citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Public Health. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Abreu A. Harnessing new scientific capacity. Science. 2012 Jun 15;336(6087):1397.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kirzhner T, Koren G. Pairing and the phase diagram of the normal coherence length ξN(T, x) above Tc of La(2-x)Sr(x)CuO4 thin films probed by the Josephson effect. Sci Rep. 2014 Sep 1;4:6244.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rowe T, McBride EF, Sereno PC. Dinosaur with a heart of stone. Science. 2001 Feb 2;291(5505):783.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Xu Z, Zhu X, Yu Y, Zhang N, Zhao J. Super-luminescent jet light generated by femtosecond laser pulses. Sci Rep. 2014 Jan 27;4:3892.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McGuiggan P. GPRS in Practice. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2005.
An edited book
Luca A de. Teoria degli Automi Finiti. D’Alessandro F, editor. Milano: Springer; 2013. XI, 323 pagg. (UNITEXT; vol. 68).
A chapter in an edited book
Grefen P, Mehandjiev N. Organization Aspect. In: Mehandjiev N, Grefen P, editors. Dynamic Business Process Formation for Instant Virtual Enterprises. London: Springer; 2010. p. 39–47. (Advanced Information and Knowledge Processing).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Public Health.

Blog post
Hale T. Wikipedia Might Not Be The Democratic Community We Think It Is [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Electronic Disability Claims Processing: SSA Is Proceeding with Its Accelerated Systems Initiative but Needs to Address Operational Issues. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2005 Sep. Report No.: GAO-05-97.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wright C. A quantitative study of retirement knowledge among Spring 2009 Arizona high school graduates [Doctoral dissertation]. [Phoenix, AZ]: University of Phoenix; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon M. Family of Seau Decides To Give Brain for Study. New York Times. 2012 May 5;D3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titlePublic Health
AbbreviationPublic Health
ISSN (print)0033-3506
ISSN (online)1476-5616
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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