How to format your references using the Public Health citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Public Health. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rice SA. Interfering for the good of a chemical reaction. Nature. 2001 Jan 18;409(6818):422–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
Stark J, Hardy K. Mathematics. Chaos: useful at last? Science. 2003 Aug 29;301(5637):1192–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
Li LY, Luo X, Wang X. Endonuclease G is an apoptotic DNase when released from mitochondria. Nature. 2001 Jul 5;412(6842):95–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Garzione CN, Hoke GD, Libarkin JC, Withers S, MacFadden B, Eiler J, et al. Rise of the Andes. Science. 2008 Jun 6;320(5881):1304–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pardoe I. Applied Regression Modeling. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2006.
An edited book
Vidergor HE, Harris CR, editors. Applied Practice for Educators of Gifted and Able Learners. Rotterdam: SensePublishers; 2015. XVIII, 644 p.
A chapter in an edited book
Blokhuis H, Veissier I, Jones B, Miele M. The Welfare Quality® vision. In: Blokhuis H, Miele M, Veissier I, Jones B, editors. Improving farm animal welfare: Science and society working together: the Welfare Quality approach. Wageningen: Wageningen Academic Publishers; 2013. p. 71–89.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Public Health.

Blog post
Taub B. New Research Shows How The Iron Curtain Blocked The Spread Of HIV To The East. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. ADP Acquisitions: No Improper Actions Found on IRS’ Contract for Data Retrieval System. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1986 Aug. Report No.: IMTEC-86-33BR.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Foley JD. Comparing Kac-Moody groups over the complex numbers and fields of positive characteristic via homotopy theory [Doctoral dissertation]. [La Jolla, CA]: University of California San Diego; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Murphy MJO. Friday File. New York Times. 2014 Sep 12;C32.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titlePublic Health
AbbreviationPublic Health
ISSN (print)0033-3506
ISSN (online)1476-5616
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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