How to format your references using the Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nieto MA: Epithelial plasticity: a common theme in embryonic and cancer cells. Science 2013;342:1234850.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jamison DT, Sandbu ME: Global health. WHO ranking of health system performance. Science 2001;293:1595–1596.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gächter S, Renner E, Sefton M: The long-run benefits of punishment. Science 2008;322:1510.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Ludwig A, Debus L, Lieckfeldt D, Wirgin I, Benecke N, Jenneckens I, et al.: When the American sea sturgeon swam east. Nature 2002;419:447–448.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lhabitant F-S: Hedge Funds. Oxford, UK, John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2004.
An edited book
Cook RT (ed): The Arché Papers on the Mathematics of Abstraction. Dordrecht, Springer Netherlands, 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
Pawlowski S, Crespo J, Velizarov S: Sustainable Power Generation from Salinity Gradient Energy by Reverse Electrodialysis; in Ribeiro AB, Mateus EP, Couto N (eds): Electrokinetics Across Disciplines and Continents: New Strategies for Sustainable Development. Cham, Springer International Publishing, 2016, pp 57–80.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics.

Blog post
Carpineti A: The Mysterious CERN Detection Might Be More Than One Particle. IFLScience 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30];Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Comments on Bill To Amend NASA Act of 1958. Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1966.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Peters A: The mark of gender: Depicting power and the female body in colonial Peru 2009;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
McKINLEY JC Jr, Southall A, Baker AL: Bronx Killing Leaves Only the Police in the Dark. New York Times 2016;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePsychotherapy and Psychosomatics
AbbreviationPsychother. Psychosom.
ISSN (print)0033-3190
ISSN (online)1423-0348
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Psychiatry and Mental health
Applied Psychology
Clinical Psychology

Other styles