How to format your references using the Psychological Services citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Psychological Services. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P. (2003). Beyond the helix. Nature, 422(6934), 927.
A journal article with 2 authors
Clarke, J., & Wilhelm, F. K. (2008). Superconducting quantum bits. Nature, 453(7198), 1031–1042.
A journal article with 3 authors
Szostak, J. W., Bartel, D. P., & Luisi, P. L. (2001). Synthesizing life. Nature, 409(6818), 387–390.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Chen, J.-J., Meng, J., Yu, D.-P., & Liao, Z.-M. (2014). Fabrication and electrical properties of stacked graphene monolayers. Scientific Reports, 4, 5065.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Brown, M., & Cutler, T. J. (2012). Haematology Nursing. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Tsaoussidis, V., Kassler, A. J., Koucheryavy, Y., & Mellouk, A. (Eds.). (2013). Wired/Wireless Internet Communication: 11th International Conference, WWIC 2013, St. Petersburg, Russia, June 5-7, 2013. Proceedings (Vol. 7889). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Björn, L. O. (2008). Light as a Tool for Biologists: Recent Developments. In L. O. Björn (Ed.), Photobiology: The Science of Life and Light (pp. 93–122). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Psychological Services.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2014, October 12). Comet To Make Close Approach To Mars. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2011). Children’s Television Act: FCC Could Improve Efforts to Oversee Enforcement and Provide Public Information (GAO-11-659). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Newcomb, S. (2009). Reliability of the CVI range: A functional vision assessment for children with cortical visual impairment [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Maryland, College Park.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, M. (2010, September 16). Looking Hot When It’s Cold. New York Times, E7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Clarke & Wilhelm, 2008; Smaglik, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Clarke & Wilhelm, 2008)
  • Three authors: (Szostak et al., 2001)
  • 6 or more authors: (Chen et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titlePsychological Services
AbbreviationPsychol. Serv.
ISSN (print)1541-1559
ISSN (online)1939-148X
ScopeApplied Psychology
Clinical Psychology

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