How to format your references using the Psychological Methods citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Psychological Methods. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Paszkowski, J. (2015). Epigenetics: The karma of oil palms. Nature, 525(7570), 466–467.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tregenza, T., & Wedell, N. (2002). Polyandrous females avoid costs of inbreeding. Nature, 415(6867), 71–73.
A journal article with 3 authors
Palop, J. J., Chin, J., & Mucke, L. (2006). A network dysfunction perspective on neurodegenerative diseases. Nature, 443(7113), 768–773.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Cortázar, D., Kunz, C., Selfridge, J., Lettieri, T., Saito, Y., MacDougall, E., Wirz, A., Schuermann, D., Jacobs, A. L., Siegrist, F., Steinacher, R., Jiricny, J., Bird, A., & Schär, P. (2011). Embryonic lethal phenotype reveals a function of TDG in maintaining epigenetic stability. Nature, 470(7334), 419–423.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Brown, D. J. (2005). Cinnolines and Phthalazines: Supplement II. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Münster, S., Pfarr-Harfst, M., Kuroczyński, P., & Ioannides, M. (Eds.). (2016). 3D Research Challenges in Cultural Heritage II: How to Manage Data and Knowledge Related to Interpretative Digital 3D Reconstructions of Cultural Heritage (Vol. 10025). Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Punter, R. A., Glas, C. A. W., & Meelissen, M. R. M. (2016). Modeling Parental Involvement. In C. A. W. Glas & M. R. M. Meelissen (Eds.), Psychometric Framework for Modeling Parental Involvement and Reading Literacy (pp. 33–76). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Psychological Methods.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, December 19). What Would Happen To The Climate If We Stopped Emitting Greenhouse Gases Today? IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1990). Issues and Anticipated Results (No. D06981). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pierce, Z. D. (2016). The relationship between nursing instructors’ transformational leadership behaviors in the clinical learning environment and associate degree nursing students’ communication apprehension [Doctoral dissertation]. Capella University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Grynbaum, M. M. (2017, May 1). They’re Like a Sitcom. Really. New York Times, C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Paszkowski, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Paszkowski, 2015; Tregenza & Wedell, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Tregenza & Wedell, 2002)
  • Three authors: (Palop et al., 2006)
  • 6 or more authors: (Cortázar et al., 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titlePsychological Methods
AbbreviationPsychol. Methods
ISSN (print)1082-989X
ISSN (online)1939-1463
ScopePsychology (miscellaneous)

Other styles