How to format your references using the Psychological Methods citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Psychological Methods. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nguyen, T. H. (2005). Security. Microchallenges of chemical weapons proliferation. Science (New York, N.Y.), 309(5737), 1021.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hartl, F. U., & Hayer-Hartl, M. (2002). Molecular chaperones in the cytosol: from nascent chain to folded protein. Science (New York, N.Y.), 295(5561), 1852–1858.
A journal article with 3 authors
Parker, J. S., Roe, S. M., & Barford, D. (2005). Structural insights into mRNA recognition from a PIWI domain-siRNA guide complex. Nature, 434(7033), 663–666.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Haramis, A.-P. G., Begthel, H., van den Born, M., van Es, J., Jonkheer, S., Offerhaus, G. J. A., & Clevers, H. (2004). De novo crypt formation and juvenile polyposis on BMP inhibition in mouse intestine. Science (New York, N.Y.), 303(5664), 1684–1686.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ratliff, T. A. (2005). The Laboratory Quality Assurance System. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Mitra, A. P., & Sharma, C. (Eds.). (2010). Global Environmental Changes in South Asia: A Regional Perspective. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Liu, X., & Li, X. (2013). Privacy Preservation Using Logical Coordinates. In X. Li (Ed.), Location Privacy Protection in Mobile Networks (pp. 51–72). New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Psychological Methods.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, January 6). What Makes One Earth-Like Planet More Habitable Than Another? Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2003). Transportation Security Research: Coordination Needed in Selecting and Implementing Infrastructure Vulnerability Assessments (No. GAO-03-502). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Veru, P. T. (2009). The National-Dobro Guitar Company: How the resonator guitar survived the age of electric amplification (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rosenbloom, S., & Billard, M. (2010, September 16). A Night to Ring Up Some Good Will. New York Times, p. E8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Nguyen, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Hartl & Hayer-Hartl, 2002; Nguyen, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hartl & Hayer-Hartl, 2002)
  • Three authors: (Parker, Roe, & Barford, 2005)
  • 6 or more authors: (Haramis et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titlePsychological Methods
AbbreviationPsychol. Methods
ISSN (print)1082-989X
ISSN (online)1939-1463
ScopePsychology (miscellaneous)

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