How to format your references using the Psychological Methods citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Psychological Methods. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Trounson, A. (2012). Keith H. Campbell (1954-2012). Nature, 491(7423), 193.
A journal article with 2 authors
del Giorgio, P. A., & Duarte, C. M. (2002). Respiration in the open ocean. Nature, 420(6914), 379–384.
A journal article with 3 authors
Della Negra, M., Jenni, P., & Virdee, T. S. (2012). Journey in the search for the Higgs boson: the ATLAS and CMS experiments at the Large Hadron Collider. Science (New York, N.Y.), 338(6114), 1560–1568.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Girling, R. D., Lusebrink, I., Farthing, E., Newman, T. A., & Poppy, G. M. (2013). Diesel exhaust rapidly degrades floral odours used by honeybees. Scientific Reports, 3, 2779.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ngwira, M., & Manase, D. (2015). Public Sector Property Asset Management. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Ranganathan, N., Sivaciyan, V., & Saksena, F. B. (Eds.). (2007). The Art and Science of Cardiac Physical Examination: With Heart Sounds and Pulse Wave Forms on CD. Humana Press.
A chapter in an edited book
Nicolosi, G., & Korthals, M. (2008). Narrative Strategies in Food Advertising. In C. Coff, D. Barling, M. Korthals, & T. Nielsen (Eds.), Ethical Traceability and Communicating Food (pp. 63–78). Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Psychological Methods.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2016, April 27). Populations Of Pacific Bluefin Tuna Have Crashed By 97 Percent. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1998). Space Station: U.S. Life-Cycle Funding Requirements (T-NSIAD-98-212). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bottorff, A. K. (2010). Evaluating summer school programs and the effect on student achievement: The correlation between Stanford-10 standardized test scores and two different summer programs [Doctoral dissertation]. Lindenwood University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Powell, K. (2017, April 19). He’s Got It From Here. New York Times, M296.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Trounson, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (del Giorgio & Duarte, 2002; Trounson, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (del Giorgio & Duarte, 2002)
  • Three authors: (Della Negra et al., 2012)
  • 6 or more authors: (Girling et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titlePsychological Methods
AbbreviationPsychol. Methods
ISSN (print)1082-989X
ISSN (online)1939-1463
ScopePsychology (miscellaneous)

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