How to format your references using the Psychological Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Psychological Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lill R (2009) Function and biogenesis of iron-sulphur proteins. Nature 460, 831–838.
A journal article with 2 authors
Huang B-L, Mackem S (2014) Evolutionary developmental biology: Use it or lose it. Nature 511, 34–35.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kuhlenkoetter S, Wintermeyer W, Rodnina MV (2011) Different substrate-dependent transition states in the active site of the ribosome. Nature 476, 351–354.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Zuev PS, Sheridan RS, Albu TV, Truhlar DG, Hrovat DA, Borden WT (2003) Carbon tunneling from a single quantum state. Science (New York, N.Y.) 299, 867–870.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Geng H (2014) Data Center Handbook. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Fritsche-Neto R, Borém A (eds) (2012) Plant Breeding for Biotic Stress Resistance. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Ostwald MJ, Vaughan J (2016) Refining the Method. In The Fractal Dimension of Architecture (ed. J. Vaughan) , pp 87–131 Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Psychological Medicine.

Blog post
Andrews R (2016) The Human Heart Begins Beating Just 16 Days After Conception. IFLScience. Available at:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2014) School Lunch: Implementing Nutrition Changes Was Challenging and Clarification of Oversight Requirements Is Needed.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bearden A (2017) Exploring the Congruency between Mission and Practice in a Pre-K-12, Midwestern, Christian School. Doctoral dissertation. St. Charles, MO: Lindenwood University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G (2012) A Rivalry to Add to the City’s Rich History. New York Times 26 November D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lill, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Lill, 2009; Huang and Mackem, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Huang and Mackem, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Zuev et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titlePsychological Medicine
AbbreviationPsychol. Med.
ISSN (print)0033-2917
ISSN (online)1469-8978
ScopePsychiatry and Mental health
Applied Psychology

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