How to format your references using the Psychological Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Psychological Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Makalowski W (2003). Genomics. Not junk after all. Science (New York, N.Y.) 300, 1246–1247.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zhang K, Kaufman RJ (2008). From endoplasmic-reticulum stress to the inflammatory response. Nature 454, 455–462.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bourgeois C, Rocha B, Tanchot C (2002). A role for CD40 expression on CD8+ T cells in the generation of CD8+ T cell memory. Science (New York, N.Y.) 297, 2060–2063.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Urnius E, Brennessel WW, Cramer CJ, Ellis JE, Schleyer P von R (2002). A carbon-free sandwich complex [(P5)2Ti]2-. Science (New York, N.Y.) 295, 832–834.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Heuer A (2012). Der perfekte Tipp. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA: Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Huopalahti R, López-Fandiño R, Anton M, Schade R (eds) (2007). Bioactive Egg Compounds. Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Gosling P, Noordam B (2011). Designing Good Experiments. In Mastering Your PhD: Survival and Success in the Doctoral Years and Beyond Ed. LD Noordam, pp35–44. Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Psychological Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015). Mangy Marsupials: Wombats Are Catching A Deadly Disease, And We Urgently Need A Plan To Help Them. . IFLScience IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1986). Planning for the Security of Local Area Networks. 1 January no. 129557. U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Luce GR (2015). British viola repertoire of the first half of the twentieth century. Doctoral dissertation thesis . University of Maryland, College Park: College Park, MD

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly C (2007). After 117 Years, a Family Business Calls It Quits. New York Times 18 February, WE2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Makalowski 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Makalowski 2003; Zhang & Kaufman 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Zhang & Kaufman 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Urnius et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titlePsychological Medicine
AbbreviationPsychol. Med.
ISSN (print)0033-2917
ISSN (online)1469-8978
ScopePsychiatry and Mental health
Applied Psychology

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