How to format your references using the Psychological Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Psychological Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Eckhardt B (2011) Applied physics. A critical point for turbulence. Science (New York, N.Y.) 333, 165–166.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cywes C, Wessels MR (2001) Group A Streptococcus tissue invasion by CD44-mediated cell signalling. Nature 414, 648–652.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rojstaczer S, Sterling SM, Moore NJ (2001) Human appropriation of photosynthesis products. Science (New York, N.Y.) 294, 2549–2552.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Yoshida S, Handa Y, Suzuki T, Ogawa M, Suzuki M, Tamai A, Abe A, Katayama E, Sasakawa C (2006) Microtubule-severing activity of Shigella is pivotal for intercellular spreading. Science (New York, N.Y.) 314, 985–989.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Liu S-C, Delbruck T, Indiveri G, Whatley A, Douglas R (2015) Event-Based Neuromorphic Systems. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Westerhof N (2010) Snapshots of Hemodynamics: An Aid for Clinical Research and Graduate Education. 2nd edn (ed. N. Stergiopulos and M. I. M. Noble) Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Yue J (2013) Uplift Modeling Application and Methodology in Database Marketing. In Topics in Applied Statistics: 2012 Symposium of the International Chinese Statistical Association (ed. M. Hu, Y. Liu and J. Lin) Springer Proceedings in Mathematics & Statistics , pp 49–60 New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Psychological Medicine.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J (2016) Chinese Volunteers Complete 180-Day Mock Deep Space Mission. IFLScience. Available at:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1992) From School to Work.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Goodwin RH (2013) Case study of the voluntary student transfer program: The perspectives of African American students and parent participants in one midwestern school district. Doctoral dissertation. St. Charles, MO: Lindenwood University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Marx L (2015) They Help Each Other and Their Country. New York Times 1 November ST14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Eckhardt, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Cywes and Wessels, 2001; Eckhardt, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Cywes and Wessels, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Yoshida et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titlePsychological Medicine
AbbreviationPsychol. Med.
ISSN (print)0033-2917
ISSN (online)1469-8978
ScopePsychiatry and Mental health
Applied Psychology

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