How to format your references using the Psychological Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Psychological Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Benton TG (2007) Ecology. Managing farming’s footprint on biodiversity. Science (New York, N.Y.) 315, 341–342.
A journal article with 2 authors
Milinski M, Rockenbach B (2007) Economics. Spying on others evolves. Science (New York, N.Y.) 317, 464–465.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jackson BA, Bikson TK, Gunn PP (2013) Science and law. Human subjects protection and research on terrorism and conflict. Science (New York, N.Y.) 340, 434–435.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Le Grand R, Mondloch CJ, Maurer D, Brent HP (2001) Neuroperception. Early visual experience and face processing. Nature 410, 890.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Brown BL, Hendrix SB, Hedges DW, Smith TB (2011) Multivariate Analysis for the Biobehavioral and Social Sciences. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Arodź H (2010) Lectures on Classical and Quantum Theory of Fields. (ed. L. Hadasz) Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Sroufe R (2013) Quality Assurance and Consumer Electronics Recycling. In Quality Management in Reverse Logistics: A Broad Look on Quality Issues and Their Interaction with Closed-Loop Supply Chains (ed. Y. Nikolaidis) , pp 73–94 London: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Psychological Medicine.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J (2015) Scientists Make ‘Surprising’ Discovery On Comet 67P. IFLScience. Available at:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1992) Earth Observing System: NASA Needs to Reassess Its EOSDIS Development Strategy.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Amodeo GA (2009) Structural and biochemical characterization of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae AMPK homolog SNF1. Doctoral dissertation. New York, NY: Columbia University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Biillard M (2010) Listen Up, but Good. New York Times 6 May E5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Benton, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Benton, 2007; Milinski and Rockenbach, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Milinski and Rockenbach, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Le Grand et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titlePsychological Medicine
AbbreviationPsychol. Med.
ISSN (print)0033-2917
ISSN (online)1469-8978
ScopePsychiatry and Mental health
Applied Psychology

Other styles