How to format your references using the Psychological Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Psychological Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lutz S (2010) Biochemistry. Reengineering enzymes. Science (New York, N.Y.) 329, 285–287.
A journal article with 2 authors
Taira T, Hatoyama Y (2011) Nuclear energy: Nationalize the Fukushima Daiichi atomic plant. Nature 480, 313–314.
A journal article with 3 authors
Spillane SM, Kippenberg TJ, Vahala KJ (2002) Ultralow-threshold Raman laser using a spherical dielectric microcavity. Nature 415, 621–623.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Brown M, Bristow R, Glazer P, Hill R, McBride W, McKenna G, Muschel R (2003) Comment on ‘Tumor response to radiotherapy regulated by endothelial cell apoptosis’ (II). Science (New York, N.Y.) 302, 1894; author reply 1894.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pesavento L, Smoleny S (2015) A Trader’s Guide to Financial Astrology. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Ganz PA (ed.) (2007) Cancer Survivorship: Today and Tomorrow. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Alpay D, Colombo F, Sabadini I (2016) Finite-dimensional Preliminaries. In Slice Hyperholomorphic Schur Analysis (ed. F. Colombo and I. Sabadini) Operator Theory: Advances and Applications , pp 51–69 Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Psychological Medicine.

Blog post
Luntz S (2016) How Hurricanes Affect Climate Change. IFLScience. Available at:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2014) Aviation Security: Rapid Growth in Expedited Passenger Screening Highlights Need to Plan Effective Security Assessments.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Becker M (2017) Women’s Descriptions Six Months Post Notification of Positive BRCA 1/2 Genetic Mutations. Doctoral dissertation. Minneapolis, MN: Capella University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Leland J (2017) Midcentury City. New York Times 23 March MB10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lutz, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Lutz, 2010; Taira and Hatoyama, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Taira and Hatoyama, 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Brown et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titlePsychological Medicine
AbbreviationPsychol. Med.
ISSN (print)0033-2917
ISSN (online)1469-8978
ScopePsychiatry and Mental health
Applied Psychology

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