How to format your references using the Journal of Financial Economics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Financial Economics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Harley, D., 2013. Scholarly communication: cultural contexts, evolving models. Science 342, 80–82.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kim, N., Grey, C.P., 2002. Probing oxygen motion in disordered anionic conductors with 17O and 51V MAS NMR spectroscopy. Science 297, 1317–1320.
A journal article with 3 authors
Morgan, J.L.W., Strumillo, J., Zimmer, J., 2013. Crystallographic snapshot of cellulose synthesis and membrane translocation. Nature 493, 181–186.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Cao, T., Wei, C., Mao, L., Li, Y., 2014. Extrinsic 2D chirality: giant circular conversion dichroism from a metal-dielectric-metal square array. Sci. Rep. 4, 7442.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McLeod, L.E., 2016. Leading with Noble Purpose. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Wyrzykowski, R., Dongarra, J., Karczewski, K., Wasniewski, J. (Eds.), 2010. Parallel Processing and Applied Mathematics: 8th International Conference, PPAM 2009, Wroclaw, Poland, September 13-16, 2009, Revised Selected Papers, Part II, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Díaz, N.R., 2016. Against All Odds: Defining a Revolutionary Identity in Syria, in: Douai, A., Ben Moussa, M. (Eds.), Mediated Identities and New Journalism in the Arab World: Mapping the “Arab Spring.” Palgrave Macmillan UK, London, pp. 83–99.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Financial Economics.

Blog post
Taub, B., 2016. Something Weird Happens When You Give Cocaine To Fish [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2005. Risk Management: Further Refinements Needed to Assess Risks and Prioritize Protective Measures at Ports and Other Critical Infrastructure (No. GAO-06-91). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Aiken, J., 2009. Virtually a leader: Mitigating process losses through shared team states (Doctoral dissertation). University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Fernandez, M., Pérez-Peña, R., Santos, F., 2015. Gunman in Texas Was F.B.I. Suspect in Jihad Inquiry. New York Times A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Harley, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Harley, 2013; Kim and Grey, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kim and Grey, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Cao et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Financial Economics
AbbreviationJ. financ. econ.
ISSN (print)0304-405X
Strategy and Management
Economics and Econometrics

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