How to format your references using the Psychiatric Services citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Psychiatric Services. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stirling A: Keep it complex. Nature 468: 1029–1031, 2010.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ahlund M, Andersson M: Female ducks can double their reproduction. Nature 414: 600–601, 2001.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rojstaczer S, Sterling SM, Moore NJ: Human appropriation of photosynthesis products. Science 294: 2549–2552, 2001.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Sato Y, Iketani M, Kurihara Y, et al.: Cartilage acidic protein-1B (LOTUS), an endogenous Nogo receptor antagonist for axon tract formation. Science 333: 769–773, 2011.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cooke RM, Nieboer D, Misiewicz J: Fat-Tailed Distributions: Volume 1. Hoboken, NJ, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2014
An edited book
Derby B, Akhtar R (eds): Mechanical Properties of Aging Soft Tissues. Cham, Springer International Publishing, 2015
A chapter in an edited book
Cansev M, Wurtman RJ: 4 Aromatic Amino Acids in the Brain; in Handbook of Neurochemistry and Molecular Neurobiology: Amino Acids and Peptides in the Nervous System. Edited by Lajtha A, Oja SS, Schousboe A, et al. Boston, MA, Springer US, 2007.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Psychiatric Services.

Blog post
Andrew E: Alien-Like Lobster Found In Nova Scotia. IFLScience. , 2014.Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Safe and Drug-Free Schools: Balancing Accountability With State and Local Flexibility. Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jahan M: A policy to protect hoarders: An analysis of Fair Housing Amendments Act, 1988 [Doctoral dissertation]. Long Beach, CA, California State University, Long Beach, 2015

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dominus S: After The Dark, The ‘Dream.’ New York Times. AR1, 2013.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titlePsychiatric Services
AbbreviationPsychiatr. Serv.
ISSN (print)1075-2730
ISSN (online)1557-9700
ScopePsychiatry and Mental health

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