How to format your references using the Psychiatric Services citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Psychiatric Services. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kondo S: Developmental biology. Self-organizing somites. Science (New York, N.Y.) 343: 736–737, 2014.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lavik E, Ustin J: Medicine. Leveraging shear stress to bust clots with nanoparticles. Science (New York, N.Y.) 337: 658–659, 2012.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cohen BA, Hewins RH, Yu Y: Evaporation in the young solar nebula as the origin of “just-right” melting of chondrules. Nature 406: 600–602, 2000.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Sun F, Wang J, Chen H, et al.: Bottom-up catalytic approach towards nitrogen-enriched mesoporous carbons/sulfur composites for superior Li-S cathodes. Scientific reports 3: 2823, 2013.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
DiMaio MS, Fox JE, Mahoney MJ: Prenatal Diagnosis: Cases & Clinical Challenges. Oxford, UK, Wiley-Blackwell, 2010
An edited book
Reitz EJ, Scudder SJ, Scarry CM (eds): Case Studies in Environmental Archaeology, Second Edition. New York, NY, Springer, 2008
A chapter in an edited book
Mukherjee AB, Bhattacharya P, Sarkar A, et al.: Mercury emissions from industrial sources in India and its effects in the environment; in Mercury Fate and Transport in the Global Atmosphere: Emissions, Measurements and Models. Edited by Mason R, Pirrone N. Boston, MA, Springer US, 2009.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Psychiatric Services.

Blog post
Carpineti C: NASA Just Released Some Seriously Cool Videos Of Fire In Microgravity [Internet]. IFLScience. , 2016.Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: [Comments on Montana’s Entitlement to Restoration of Rehabilitation Funds]. Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1989

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Graves KA: An Exploration of Organizational Commitment among Generation X Leaders [Doctoral dissertation]. Phoenix, AZ, University of Phoenix, 2012

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow L: At Museum Shops, Unusual Selections. New York Times. 14LI12, 2005.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titlePsychiatric Services
AbbreviationPsychiatr. Serv.
ISSN (print)1075-2730
ISSN (online)1557-9700
ScopePsychiatry and Mental health

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