How to format your references using the Psychiatric Services citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Psychiatric Services. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Yan H: Materials science. Nucleic acid nanotechnology. Science 306: 2048–2049, 2004.
A journal article with 2 authors
Caldeira K, Wickett ME: Oceanography: anthropogenic carbon and ocean pH. Nature 425: 365, 2003.
A journal article with 3 authors
Plerou V, Gopikrishnan P, Stanley HE: Econophysics: Two-phase behaviour of financial markets. Nature 421: 130, 2003.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Smith DJ, Lapedes AS, de Jong JC, et al.: Mapping the antigenic and genetic evolution of influenza virus. Science 305: 371–376, 2004.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Aubrey SB: The Profitable Hobby Farm. Hoboken, NJ, Wiley Publishing, Inc., 2010
An edited book
Schwartz RA, Byrne JA, Colaninno A (eds): A Trading Desk’s View of Market Quality. Boston, MA, Springer US, 2005
A chapter in an edited book
Barenghi A, Hocquet C, Bol D, et al.: Exploring the Feasibility of Low Cost Fault Injection Attacks on Sub-threshold Devices through an Example of a 65nm AES Implementation; in RFID. Security and Privacy: 7th International Workshop, RFIDSec 2011, Amherst, USA, June 26-28, 2011, Revised Selected Papers. Edited by Juels A, Paar C. Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer, 2012.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Psychiatric Services.

Blog post
Felton J: Dear Class Of 2017: Bill Gates Reveals What He Wishes He Knew When He Started Out. IFLScience. , 2017.Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Natural Gas Pipelines: Greater Use of Instrumented Inspection Technology Can Improve Safety. Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1992

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kamis RP: The Relationship between Expanded Concepts of Self and Well-Being [Doctoral dissertation]. Scottsdale, AZ, Northcentral University, 2013

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
McKINLEY JC Jr: Man Convicted of Murder in Patz Case Is Sentenced to 25 Years to Life. New York Times. A21, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titlePsychiatric Services
AbbreviationPsychiatr. Serv.
ISSN (print)1075-2730
ISSN (online)1557-9700
ScopePsychiatry and Mental health

Other styles