How to format your references using the Psychiatric Services citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Psychiatric Services. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Goodson KE: Materials science. Ordering up the minimum thermal conductivity of solids. Science 315: 342–343, 2007.
A journal article with 2 authors
Scaffidi P, Misteli T: Lamin A-dependent nuclear defects in human aging. Science 312: 1059–1063, 2006.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kaeberlein T, Lewis K, Epstein SS: Isolating “uncultivable” microorganisms in pure culture in a simulated natural environment. Science 296: 1127–1129, 2002.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Novoselov KS, Geim AK, Dubonos SV, et al.: Subatomic movements of a domain wall in the Peierls potential. Nature 426: 812–816, 2003.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kimball R, Ross M: The Kimball Group Reader. Indianapolis, IN, USA, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 2015
An edited book
Rodríguez-Merchán EC, Rubio-Suárez JC (eds): Complex Fractures of the Limbs: Diagnosis and Management. Cham, Springer International Publishing, 2014
A chapter in an edited book
Granados A, Mayer E, Norton C, et al.: Haptics Modelling for Digital Rectal Examinations; in Biomedical Simulation: 6th International Symposium, ISBMS 2014, Strasbourg, France, October 16-17, 2014. Proceedings. Edited by Bello F, Cotin S. Cham, Springer International Publishing, 2014.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Psychiatric Services.

Blog post
Andrew E: We Created A New Material From Orange Peel That Can Clean Up Mercury Pollution. IFLScience. , 2015.Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Advanced Automation System: Implications of Problems and Recent Changes. Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1994

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ruettgers MM: A Content Analysis to Investigate the Evidence of 21st Century Knowledge and Skills within Elementary Teacher Education Programs in the United States [Doctoral dissertation]. St. Charles, MO, Lindenwood University, 2013

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G: Yankees’ Old Ways Catch Up With Them. New York Times. D1, 2012.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titlePsychiatric Services
AbbreviationPsychiatr. Serv.
ISSN (print)1075-2730
ISSN (online)1557-9700
ScopePsychiatry and Mental health

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