How to format your references using the Protoplasma citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Protoplasma. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Moore P (2003) Antibodies where you want them. Nature 426:729
A journal article with 2 authors
Fitch WT, Hauser MD (2004) Computational constraints on syntactic processing in a nonhuman primate. Science 303:377–380
A journal article with 3 authors
Cronin TW, Caldwell RL, Marshall J (2001) Sensory adaptation. Tunable colour vision in a mantis shrimp. Nature 411:547–548
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Elvin CM, Carr AG, Huson MG, et al (2005) Synthesis and properties of crosslinked recombinant pro-resilin. Nature 437:999–1002

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Monks RAG, Reed Lajoux A, LeBaron D (2010) Corporate Valuation for Portfolio Investment. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Kumar S (2014) Deregulation and Efficiency of Indian Banks. Springer India, New Delhi
A chapter in an edited book
Kim J (2012) Improved Light Extraction Efficiency in GaN-Based Light Emitting Diodes. In: Pearton S (ed) GaN and ZnO-based Materials and Devices. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 153–164

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Protoplasma.

Blog post
Andrew E (2013) What does space sound like? In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2014) Aviation Security: Rapid Growth in Expedited Passenger Screening Highlights Need to Plan Effective Security Assessments. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McKenzie RA (2012) A correlational study of servant leadership and teacher job satisfaction in a public education institution. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
de la MERCED MJ (2017) ADP Says Activist Investor Seeks Half Of Its Board Seats and a New C.E.O. New York Times B5

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Moore 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Moore 2003; Fitch and Hauser 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Fitch and Hauser 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Elvin et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleProtoplasma
AbbreviationProtoplasma
ISSN (print)0033-183X
ISSN (online)1615-6102
ScopePlant Science
Cell Biology
General Medicine

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