How to format your references using the Protoplasma citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Protoplasma. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik P (2005) Take your partner by the hand. Nature 435:1281
A journal article with 2 authors
Zhang Y, Xiong Y (2001) A p53 amino-terminal nuclear export signal inhibited by DNA damage-induced phosphorylation. Science 292:1910–1915
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhong Y, Zhang L, Su D (2000) Collaborations tailored for bioinformatics projects. Science 290:2074a
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Furukawa H, Ko N, Go YB, et al (2010) Ultrahigh porosity in metal-organic frameworks. Science 329:424–428

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Olofsson P (2006) Probabilities. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Apps JN, Newby RF, Roberts LW (eds) (2010) Pediatric Neuropsychology Case Studies: From the Exceptional to the Commonplace. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Thomas J-B, Hardeberg JY, Trémeau A (2013) Cross-Media Color Reproduction and Display Characterization. In: Fernandez-Maloigne C (ed) Advanced Color Image Processing and Analysis. Springer, New York, NY, pp 81–118

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Protoplasma.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J (2017) A Schoolboy In The UK Pointed Out An Error To NASA On The ISS. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1973) Opportunities for Improving Management of Local Telephone Service. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jones DM (2010) Educational paradigm shift: Emergence of the virtual classroom. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G (2012) From Good Times at the Garden to a New Era at the Armory. New York Times B12

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Zhang and Xiong 2001; Smaglik 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Zhang and Xiong 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Furukawa et al. 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleProtoplasma
ISSN (print)0033-183X
ISSN (online)1615-6102
ScopePlant Science
Cell Biology
General Medicine

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