How to format your references using the Protoplasma citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Protoplasma. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Watts C (2001) Immunology. Antigen presentation--losing its shine in the absence of GILT. Science 294:1294–1295
A journal article with 2 authors
van der Zwaag D, Meijer EW (2015) SELF-ORGANIZATION. Fueling connections between chemistry and biology. Science 349:1056–1057
A journal article with 3 authors
Allen M, Raper S, Mitchell J (2001) Climate change. Uncertainty in the IPCC’s Third Assessment Report. Science 293:430–433
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Mitsui T, Rose MK, Fomin E, et al (2003) Dissociative hydrogen adsorption on palladium requires aggregates of three or more vacancies. Nature 422:705–707

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Carroll N (2013) Minerva’s Night Out. A John Wiley & Sons, Oxford
An edited book
Lebeda A, Spencer-Phillips PTN, Cooke BM (eds) (2008) The Downy Mildews - Genetics, Molecular Biology and Control. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Edge CS, Barker C, Schwiebert E (2010) Controlling Network Traffic. In: Barker C, Schwiebert E (eds) Beginning Mac OS X Snow Leopard Server: From Solo Install to Enterprise Integration. Apress, Berkeley, CA, pp 149–172

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Protoplasma.

Blog post
Felton J (2017) Male Scientist Claims Lesbianism Evolved Because Men Like It. Gay Community Disagrees. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2001) Major Management Challenges and Program Risks: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ho L (2012) Determination of Ibuprofen Isotherm Using Supercritical Fluid Chromatography. Doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Lee L (2013) In Miami, a House Comes to Visit. New York Times D3

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Watts 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Watts 2001; van der Zwaag and Meijer 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (van der Zwaag and Meijer 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Mitsui et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleProtoplasma
ISSN (print)0033-183X
ISSN (online)1615-6102
ScopePlant Science
Cell Biology
General Medicine

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