How to format your references using the Proteomes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Proteomes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Giles, J. Think like a bee. Nature 2001, 410, 510–512.
A journal article with 2 authors
van Ginneken, V.J.; van den Thillart, G.E. Eel fat stores are enough to reach the Sargasso. Nature 2000, 403, 156–157.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ni, S.; Kanamori, H.; Helmberger, D. Seismology: energy radiation from the Sumatra earthquake. Nature 2005, 434, 582.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Fiegna, F.; Yu, Y.-T.N.; Kadam, S.V.; Velicer, G.J. Evolution of an obligate social cheater to a superior cooperator. Nature 2006, 441, 310–314.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Williams, D.L. Ophthalmology of Exotic Pets; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.: West Sussex, UK, 2012; ISBN 9781118709627.
An edited book
Advances in Plant Dormancy; Anderson, J.V., Ed.; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2015; ISBN 9783319144504.
A chapter in an edited book
Dudek-Dyduch, E.; Horzyk, A. The Influence of Training Data Availability Time on Effectiveness of ANN Adaptation Process. In Artificial Intelligence and Soft Computing – ICAISC 2008: 9th International Conference Zakopane, Poland, June 22-26, 2008 Proceedings; Rutkowski, L., Tadeusiewicz, R., Zadeh, L.A., Zurada, J.M., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2008; pp. 28–39 ISBN 9783540695721.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Proteomes.

Blog post
Fang, J. Our Trash Reached the Deepest Parts of the Ocean Before Us Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Internal Controls Over the Automatic Data Processing System Used by the Travelers Insurance Company in Making Medicare Payments; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1969;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Geist, C. The marriage economy: Examining the economic impact and the context of marriage in comparative perspective. Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University: Bloomington, IN, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Baker, P.; Shear, M.D. Trump Stirs a New Question: Are There Tapes? New York Times 2017, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleProteomes
ISSN (online)2227-7382

Other styles