How to format your references using the Proteomes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Proteomes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nogrady, B. Immunotherapy: Chemical Tricks. Nature 2014, 513, S10-1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ellerbroek, B.; Rigaut, F. Optics Adapt to the Whole Sky. Nature 2000, 403, 25–26.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mihalcescu, I.; Hsing, W.; Leibler, S. Resilient Circadian Oscillator Revealed in Individual Cyanobacteria. Nature 2004, 430, 81–85.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Roberge, A.; Feldman, P.D.; Weinberger, A.J.; Deleuil, M.; Bouret, J.-C. Stabilization of the Disk around Beta Pictoris by Extremely Carbon-Rich Gas. Nature 2006, 441, 724–726.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chernick, M.R. The Essentials of Biostatistics for Physicians, Nurses, and Clinicians; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2011; ISBN 9781118071953.
An edited book
Fields of Logic and Computation: Essays Dedicated to Yuri Gurevich on the Occasion of His 70th Birthday; Blass, A., Dershowitz, N., Reisig, W., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2010; Vol. 6300; ISBN 9783642150241.
A chapter in an edited book
Lo Nigro, G.; Bruccoleri, M.; La Commare, U. Negotiation Models in Manufacturing E-Marketplaces. In Designing and Evaluating Value Added Services in Manufacturing E-Market Places; Perrone, G., Bruccoleri, M., Renna, P., Eds.; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2005; pp. 97–117 ISBN 9781402031519.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Proteomes.

Blog post
Fang, J. Male Spiders Can Detect Female Promiscuity (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office NASA: Changes to the Scope, Schedule, and Estimated Cost of the Earth Observing System; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1992;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Moreno, S. Mother-Child Relationships: Females behind Bars and Their Children. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K. A Drive to Save a Tiger By the Name of Tammany. New York Times 2002, 144.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleProteomes
ISSN (online)2227-7382

Other styles