How to format your references using the Proteomes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Proteomes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mandavilli, A. Struggling to make an impact. Nature 2004, 430, 935.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ali, J.R.; Huber, M. Mammalian biodiversity on Madagascar controlled by ocean currents. Nature 2010, 463, 653–656.
A journal article with 3 authors
Parsons, T.; Ji, C.; Kirby, E. Stress changes from the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake and increased hazard in the Sichuan basin. Nature 2008, 454, 509–510.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Georg, R.B.; Halliday, A.N.; Schauble, E.A.; Reynolds, B.C. Silicon in the Earth’s core. Nature 2007, 447, 1102–1106.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Grous, A. Fracture Mechanics 1; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ USA, 2012; ISBN 9781118580004.
An edited book
Sakkas, D. Gamete and Embryo Selection: Genomics, Metabolomics and Morphological Assessment; Katz-Jaffe, M.G., Sueldo, C.E., Eds.; SpringerBriefs in Reproductive Biology; Springer: New York, NY, 2014; ISBN 9781493909889.
A chapter in an edited book
Wigley, F.M. Ischemic Digital Ulcers. In A Visual Guide to Scleroderma and Approach to Treatment; Mayes, M.D., Ed.; Springer: New York, NY, 2014; pp. 51–62 ISBN 9781493909797.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Proteomes.

Blog post
Hale, T. US Nuclear Weapons Computers Still Use Floppy Disks Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Information Technology: DLA Should Strengthen Business Systems Modernization Architecture and Investment Activities; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2001;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McCarroll, M.L. Exercise and Airway Clearing Devices in Pulmonary Rehabilitation Programs for Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University: Columbus, OH, 2005.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Kenigsberg, B. Lost in Paris. New York Times 2017, C7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleProteomes
ISSN (online)2227-7382

Other styles