How to format your references using the Proteomes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Proteomes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stuessy, T.F. Evolutionary Biology: Sympatric Plant Speciation in Islands? Nature 2006, 443, E12; discussion E12-3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sander, P.M.; Klein, N. Developmental Plasticity in the Life History of a Prosauropod Dinosaur. Science 2005, 310, 1800–1802.
A journal article with 3 authors
Henrich, J.; Heine, S.J.; Norenzayan, A. Most People Are Not WEIRD. Nature 2010, 466, 29.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Navarre, W.W.; Porwollik, S.; Wang, Y.; McClelland, M.; Rosen, H.; Libby, S.J.; Fang, F.C. Selective Silencing of Foreign DNA with Low GC Content by the H-NS Protein in Salmonella. Science 2006, 313, 236–238.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kumar, V.; Petersen, J.A. Statistical Methods in Customer Relationship Management; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2012; ISBN 9781118349212.
An edited book
Resilience Interventions for Youth in Diverse Populations; Prince-Embury, S., Saklofske, D.H., Eds.; The Springer Series on Human Exceptionality; Springer: New York, NY, 2014; ISBN 9781493905416.
A chapter in an edited book
Ashida, G.; Wagner, H.; Carr, C.E. Processing of Phase-Locked Spikes and Periodic Signals. In Analysis of Parallel Spike Trains; Grün, S., Rotter, S., Eds.; Springer US: Boston, MA, 2010; pp. 59–74 ISBN 9781441956743.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Proteomes.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. How We Can Use The Moon To Get To Mars Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Tax Systems Modernization: Actions Underway But Management and Technical Weaknesses Not Yet Corrected; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1996;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Harris, N.S. The Impact of Action Learning Experience on Reflective Practice. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University: Washington, DC, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hirsch, G.A. One Man’s Vision: Footrace in Five Boroughs. New York Times 2014, SP10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleProteomes
ISSN (online)2227-7382

Other styles