How to format your references using the Proteomes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Proteomes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bardeen, C. Electron transfer. Sometimes you can go home again. Science 2001, 293, 444–445.
A journal article with 2 authors
Thodey, K.; Smolke, C.D. Cell biology. Bringing it together with RNA. Science 2011, 333, 412–413.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ni, J.; Yan, Q.; Yu, Y. How much metagenomic sequencing is enough to achieve a given goal? Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 1968.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Lissenberg, C.J.; Rioux, M.; Shimizu, N.; Bowring, S.A.; Mével, C. Zircon dating of oceanic crustal accretion. Science 2009, 323, 1048–1050.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zepernick, H.-J.; Finger, A. Pseudo Random Signal Processing; John Wiley & Sons Ltd,.: West Sussex, England, 2005; ISBN 9780470866597.
An edited book
Challenges in Computational Statistics and Data Mining; Matwin, S., Mielniczuk, J., Eds.; Studies in Computational Intelligence; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; Vol. 605; ISBN 9783319187808.
A chapter in an edited book
Al-Baali, A.G.A.-G.; Farid, M.M. Thermal Sterilization Of Food In Cans. In Sterilization Of Food In Retort Pouches; Farid, M.M., Ed.; Food Engineering Series; Springer US: Boston, MA, 2006; pp. 45–92 ISBN 9780387311289.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Proteomes.

Blog post
Evans, K. Can You Really Be Addicted To Love? Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Business Systems Modernization: Internal Revenue Service Needs to Further Strengthen Program Management; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2004;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chandwasker, T. Comparison of ad-hoc on demand distance vector and enhanced-ad-hoc on demand distance vector on vehicular ad-hoc networks. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2016.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sugin, L. The Furtive Tax. New York Times 2013, SR7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleProteomes
ISSN (online)2227-7382

Other styles