How to format your references using the Prostate International citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Prostate International. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bottjer DJ. Geochemistry. Life in the Early Triassic ocean. Science. 2012;338(6105):336-337.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lowenstein TK, Demicco RV. Elevated Eocene atmospheric CO2 and its subsequent decline. Science. 2006;313(5795):1928.
A journal article with 3 authors
Skipper M, Weiss U, Gray N. Plasticity. Nature. 2010;465(7299):703.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Lee P, Lee D-J, Chan C, Chen S-W, Ch’en I, Jamora C. Dynamic expression of epidermal caspase 8 simulates a wound healing response. Nature. 2009;458(7237):519-523.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tissue BM. Basics of Analytical Chemistry and Chemical Equilibria. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
Nuzzolo A, Wilson NHM, eds. Schedule-Based Modeling of Transportation Networks: Theory and Applications. Vol 46. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Kazar BM, Celik M. Comparing Exact and Approximate SAR Model Solutions. In: Celik M, ed. Spatial AutoRegression (SAR) Model: Parameter Estimation Techniques. SpringerBriefs in Computer Science. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2012:35-46.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Prostate International.

Blog post
Andrew E. A Beginner’s Guide To Understanding Stem Cells. IFLScience. Published August 19, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Department of Transportation: Key Issues and Management Challenges, 2013. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2013.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lee SB. Localizing the effects of link flooding attacks in the Internet. 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Paulson M. ‘Dear Evan Hansen’ and ‘Oslo’ Top Tonys. New York Times. June 11, 2017:C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,1.
This sentence cites four references 1,1,1,1.

About the journal

Full journal titleProstate International
AbbreviationProstate Int.
ISSN (print)2287-8882

Other styles