How to format your references using the Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J.K. Conner, Genetic mechanisms of floral trait correlations in a natural population, Nature. 420 (2002) 407–410.
A journal article with 2 authors
E.C. Nelson, P.V. Braun, Chemistry. Enhancing colloids through the surface, Science. 318 (2007) 924–925.
A journal article with 3 authors
K. Fujisawa, J.L. Wrana, J.G. Culotti, The slit receptor EVA-1 coactivates a SAX-3/Robo mediated guidance signal in C. elegans, Science. 317 (2007) 1934–1938.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
N. Johnson, G. Zhao, F. Caycedo, P. Manrique, H. Qi, F. Rodriguez, L. Quiroga, Extreme alien light allows survival of terrestrial bacteria, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 2198.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
W.F. Early II, Contractor and Client Relations to Assure Process Safety, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2010.
An edited book
E. Zermelo, Ernst Zermelo - Collected Works/Gesammelte Werke: Volume I - Set Theory, Miscellanea / Band I - Mengenlehre, Varia, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
J. Motha, Spirituality and Its Relevance for the Contemplative Educator, in: N.N. Wane, E.L. Manyimo, E.J. Ritskes (Eds.), Spirituality, Education & Society, SensePublishers, Rotterdam, 2011: pp. 49–65.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Countries In The Middle East Will Be Hardest Hit By Water Shortages, IFLScience. (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Technology Transfer: Improving Incentives For Technology Transfer at Federal Laboratories, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1993.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
E.C. Williams, Smart Packaging: A Novel Technique For Localized Drug Delivery For Ovarian Cancer, Doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
L. Greenhouse, Detainee Case Hits on Limits Of Presidency, New York Times. (2006) A22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleProstaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids
AbbreviationProstaglandins Leukot. Essent. Fatty Acids
ISSN (print)0952-3278
ScopeCell Biology
Clinical Biochemistry

Other styles