How to format your references using the Progress in Quantum Electronics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Progress in Quantum Electronics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
G. Meister, Molecular biology. RNA interference in the nucleus, Science. 321 (2008) 496–497.
A journal article with 2 authors
J. Liu, J. Diamond, China’s environment in a globalizing world, Nature. 435 (2005) 1179–1186.
A journal article with 3 authors
P.D. Roopnarine, K.D. Angielczyk, R. Hertog, Comment on “Statistical independence of escalatory ecological trends in Phanerozoic marine invertebrates,” Science. 314 (2006) 925; author reply 925.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
C. Zhang, X. Wei, M.E. Marhic, K.K.Y. Wong, Ultrafast and versatile spectroscopy by temporal Fourier transform, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 5351.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
D.P. Kroese, T. Taimre, Z.I. Botev, R.Y. Rubinstein, Simulation and the Monte Carlo Method: Solutions Manual to Accompany, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2007.
An edited book
F. Cheli, Advanced Dynamics of Mechanical Systems, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
H.H. Hochmair, C. Rinner, Investigating the Need for Eliminatory Constraints in the User Interface of Bicycle Route Planners, in: A.G. Cohn, D.M. Mark (Eds.), Spatial Information Theory: International Conference, COSIT 2005, Ellicottville, NY, USA, September 14-18, 2005. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2005: pp. 49–66.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Progress in Quantum Electronics.

Blog post
K. Hamilton, What The Color of Your Urine Says About Your Health, IFLScience. (2014). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Aviation Safety: FAA Has Improved Its Removal Procedures for Pilot Examiners, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1989.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
R. Le, Three-Power Power System State Estimation Using Extended Kalman Filter with CompactRIO Implementation, Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M.J.O. Murphy, Friday File, New York Times. (2014) C34.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleProgress in Quantum Electronics
AbbreviationProg. Quantum Electron.
ISSN (print)0079-6727
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering
Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
Statistical and Nonlinear Physics

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