How to format your references using the Progress in Quantum Electronics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Progress in Quantum Electronics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
S. Narain, Sanitation for all, Nature. 486 (2012) 185.
A journal article with 2 authors
E.J. Gaidos, F. Nimmo, Tectonics and water on Europa, Nature. 405 (2000) 637.
A journal article with 3 authors
I. Stefanová, J.R. Dorfman, R.N. Germain, Self-recognition promotes the foreign antigen sensitivity of naive T lymphocytes, Nature. 420 (2002) 429–434.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
G. Mizuguchi, X. Shen, J. Landry, W.-H. Wu, S. Sen, C. Wu, ATP-driven exchange of histone H2AZ variant catalyzed by SWR1 chromatin remodeling complex, Science. 303 (2004) 343–348.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety, Guidelines for Process Safety Documentation, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 1995.
An edited book
D. Michell, J.Z. Wilson, V. Archer, eds., Bread and Roses: Voices of Australian Academics from the Working Class, SensePublishers, Rotterdam, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
V. Madan, Environmental Risk Factors for Non-Melanoma Skin Cancers, in: G.B.E. Jemec, L. Kemeny, D. Miech (Eds.), Non-Surgical Treatment of Keratinocyte Skin Cancer, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009: pp. 39–50.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Progress in Quantum Electronics.

Blog post
D. Andrew, What Causes Cramps?, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Space Acquisitions: DOD Poised to Enhance Space Capabilities, but Persistent Challenges Remain in Developing Space Systems, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2010.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
D.C. Crossman, The impact of safety culture on worker motivation and the economic bottom line, Doctoral dissertation, Capella University, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
K. Crow, Free Tales From Mr. Kafka’s Crypt, (And Thousands of Records, Too), New York Times. (2001) 148.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleProgress in Quantum Electronics
AbbreviationProg. Quantum Electron.
ISSN (print)0079-6727
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering
Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
Statistical and Nonlinear Physics

Other styles