How to format your references using the Progress in Quantum Electronics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Progress in Quantum Electronics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
A. Celotti, Astronomy. Life after death, Science. 321 (2008) 1164–1165.
A journal article with 2 authors
X. Yi, C. Liu, Retention of cotyledons is crucial for resprouting of clipped oak seedlings, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 5145.
A journal article with 3 authors
J. Chow, R.J. Kopp, P.R. Portney, Energy resources and global development, Science. 302 (2003) 1528–1531.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
M. Sharma, P. Hegde, V. Aimanianda, R. Beau, M.S. Maddur, H. Sénéchal, P. Poncet, J.-P. Latgé, S.V. Kaveri, J. Bayry, Circulating human basophils lack the features of professional antigen presenting cells, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 1188.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
M. Davis, J. McKimm, K. Forrest, How to Assess Doctors and Health Professionals, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2013.
An edited book
H. Hahn, A. Sidorenko, I. Tiginyanu, eds., Nanoscale Phenomena: Fundamentals and Applications, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
R. Simon, The Financial Restructuring of Medium-Sized Companies, in: M. Blatz, K.-J. Kraus, S. Haghani (Eds.), Corporate Restructuring: Finance in Times of Crisis, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2006: pp. 55–63.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Progress in Quantum Electronics.

Blog post
K. Hamilton, What Our Faces Can Tell Other People About The State Of Our Health, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Tax Systems Modernization: Results of Review of IRS’ Initial Expenditure Plan, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
A. Pan, The Mental Health and Well-Being of College Students in Cambodia, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
K. Crow, Teaching Tour Guides the Trivia Behind the Trivia, New York Times. (2001) 144.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleProgress in Quantum Electronics
AbbreviationProg. Quantum Electron.
ISSN (print)0079-6727
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering
Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
Statistical and Nonlinear Physics

Other styles