How to format your references using the Progress in Quantum Electronics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Progress in Quantum Electronics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M.C. Comerio, Earthquake anniversary. Can buildings be made earthquake-safe?, Science. 312 (2006) 204–206.
A journal article with 2 authors
P. Wickware, P. Smaglik, Labs and companies seek their niches as work continues after the draft, Nature. 409 (2001) 961–963.
A journal article with 3 authors
M.S. Sim, T. Bosak, S. Ono, Large sulfur isotope fractionation does not require disproportionation, Science. 333 (2011) 74–77.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
I. Pushkarsky, Y. Liu, Y. Lyb, W. Weaver, T.-W. Su, O. Mudanyali, A. Ozcan, D. Di Carlo, Automated single-cell motility analysis on a chip using lensfree microscopy, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 4717.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
M. Aichinger, A. Binder, A Workout in Computational Finance, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2013.
An edited book
A. von Bogdandy, Max Planck Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
K. Agarwal, X. Chen, Y. Zhong, Application of Differential Evolution to a Two-Dimensional Inverse Scattering Problem, in: A. Qing, C.K. Lee (Eds.), Differential Evolution in Electromagnetics, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2010: pp. 73–105.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Progress in Quantum Electronics.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Why Do Honey Bees Make Hexagonal Honeycomb?, IFLScience. (2014). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, NIH Biomedical Research Support Grant Program, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1980.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
S. Littlefield, Application of Discrete Event Simulation to Modeling Reliability of Highly Parallel Systems with Common Cause Failures, Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
D. Kelly, The Pink Sheep, New York Times. (1995) 729.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleProgress in Quantum Electronics
AbbreviationProg. Quantum Electron.
ISSN (print)0079-6727
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering
Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
Statistical and Nonlinear Physics

Other styles