How to format your references using the Molecular Imaging and Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Molecular Imaging and Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lawler A (2000) SOLAR SYSTEM EXPLORATION: A More Cautious NASA Sets Plans for Mars. Science 290:915a–6a
A journal article with 2 authors
Rogers WB, Manoharan VN (2015) DNA nanotechnology. Programming colloidal phase transitions with DNA strand displacement. Science 347:639–642
A journal article with 3 authors
Kaminski JA, Sloutsky VM, Heckler AF (2008) Learning theory. The advantage of abstract examples in learning math. Science 320:454–455
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Imai S, Tsuge N, Tomotake M, et al (2002) Plant biochemistry: an onion enzyme that makes the eyes water. Nature 419:685

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Halpert B (2011) Auditing Cloud Computing. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Arik S, Huang T, Lai WK, Liu Q (2015) Neural Information Processing: 22nd International Conference, ICONIP 2015, Istanbul, Turkey, November 9-12, 2015, Proceedings Part III, 1st ed. 2015. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Kitt R (2014) Economic Decision Making: Application of the Theory of Complex Systems. In: Banerjee S, Erçetin ŞŞ, Tekin A (eds) Chaos Theory in Politics. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 51–73

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Molecular Imaging and Biology.

Blog post
Davis J (2015) Scientists Have Reconstructed The Hearing Abilities Of Our Ancestors. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1990) Management Improvements Essential for Key Automated Systems at the Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kane BH (2017) A Qualitative Exploratory Inquiry of Communicating in a Multigenerational Traditional-Rational Organization. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wilson DJ, Eligon J (2016) Rams’ Departure Is Another Blow to St. Louis Area, and a Chance to Shift Priorities. New York Times A14

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMolecular Imaging and Biology
AbbreviationMol. Imaging Biol.
ISSN (print)1536-1632
ISSN (online)1860-2002
ScopeCancer Research
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

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