How to format your references using the Molecular Imaging and Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Molecular Imaging and Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Mellars P (2004) Neanderthals and the modern human colonization of Europe. Nature 432:461–465
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Di Noia J, Neuberger MS (2002) Altering the pathway of immunoglobulin hypermutation by inhibiting uracil-DNA glycosylase. Nature 419:43–48
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Su Z, Huang W, Gu X (2011) Comment on “Positive selection of tyrosine loss in metazoan evolution.” Science 332:917; author reply 917
A journal article with 5 or more authors
1.
Gordon GRJ, Choi HB, Rungta RL, et al (2008) Brain metabolism dictates the polarity of astrocyte control over arterioles. Nature 456:745–749

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Lafontaine E, Comet M (2016) Nanothermites. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
1.
Diwan I, Galal A (2016) The Middle East Economies in Times of Transition. Palgrave Macmillan UK, London
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Andes DR, Dismukes WE (2011) Azoles. In: Kauffman CA, Pappas PG, Sobel JD, Dismukes WE (eds) Essentials of Clinical Mycology. Springer, New York, NY, pp 61–93

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Molecular Imaging and Biology.

Blog post
1.
Fang J (2015) World’s Oldest Blood Cells Preserved in Ötzi the Iceman. In: IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/worlds-oldest-blood-cells-preserved-tzi-iceman/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office (1991) Aerospace Plane Technology: Research and Development Efforts in Europe. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Mishne J (2012) An investigation of the relationships between technology use and teachers’ self-efficacy, knowledge and experience. Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Oestreich JR (2016) Fond Paean Kicks Off a High-Profile Run. New York Times C2

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMolecular Imaging and Biology
AbbreviationMol. Imaging Biol.
ISSN (print)1536-1632
ISSN (online)1860-2002
ScopeCancer Research
Oncology
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

Other styles