How to format your references using the Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bernath PF. Laser chemistry. Water vapor gets excited. Science. 2002;297(5583):943-945.
A journal article with 2 authors
Prejean SG, Haney MM. Geophysics. Shaking up volcanoes. Science. 2014;345(6192):39.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nicastro F, Mathur S, Elvis M. Missing baryons and the warm-hot intergalactic medium. Science. 2008;319(5859):55-57.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Mickelson W, Aloni S, Han WQ, Cumings J, Zettl A. Packing C60 in boron nitride nanotubes. Science. 2003;300(5618):467-469.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Jank W, Shmueli G. Modeling Online Auctions. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
Boulic R, Chrysanthou Y, Komura T, eds. Motion in Games: Third International Conference, MIG 2010, Utrecht, The Netherlands, November 14-16, 2010. Proceedings. Vol 6459. Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Erozan YS, Ramzy I. Respiratory Infections. In: Ramzy I, ed. Pulmonary Cytopathology. Essentials in Cytopathology. Springer US; 2014:53-85.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases.

Blog post
Carpineti A. What Would Happen If You Tried To Stand On Jupiter? IFLScience. Published July 6, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Space Transportation: The Content and Uses of Shuttle Cost Estimates. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1993.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Thompson MC. Autonomy in Occupational Health Nursing: An Application of Abbott’s Theory of Professions. Doctoral dissertation. Columbia University; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Lesch DW, Gelvin J. What has Assad won? New York Times. January 11, 2017:A10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleProgress in Cardiovascular Diseases
AbbreviationProg. Cardiovasc. Dis.
ISSN (print)0033-0620
ScopeCardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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