How to format your references using the Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Johnston AWB. BIOGEOCHEMISTRY. Who can cleave DMSP? Science. 2015;348(6242):1430-1431.
A journal article with 2 authors
Waterhouse PM, Fusaro AF. Plant science. Viruses face a double defense by plant small RNAs. Science. 2006;313(5783):54-55.
A journal article with 3 authors
Filchak KE, Roethele JB, Feder JL. Natural selection and sympatric divergence in the apple maggot Rhagoletis pomonella. Nature. 2000;407(6805):739-742.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Meng H, Xie WJ, Jiang ZQ, Podobnik B, Zhou WX, Stanley HE. Systemic risk and spatiotemporal dynamics of the US housing market. Sci Rep. 2014;4:3655.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Equipment Testing Procedures Committee. Positive Displacement Pumps. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2007.
An edited book
Floriani LD, Spagnuolo M, eds. Shape Analysis and Structuring. Springer; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Nguyen VT, Vu H, Tran TH. An Efficient Combination of RGB and Depth for Background Subtraction. In: Dang QA, Nguyen XH, Le HB, Nguyen VH, Bao VNQ, eds. Some Current Advanced Researches on Information and Computer Science in Vietnam: Post-Proceedings of The First NAFOSTED Conference on Information and Computer Science. Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing. Springer International Publishing; 2015:49-63.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases.

Blog post
Andrew E. Time Might Be Running Backwards Inside Black Holes. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. National Airspace System: Setting On-Time Performance Targets at Congested Airports Could Help Focus FAA’s Actions. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2010.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sandoval V. Preventing Chronic Truancy among Latino High School Students: A Grant Proposal. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik J. Back Home, Crashing on a Couch and Dreaming of Rap Greatness. New York Times. September 5, 2016:C5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleProgress in Cardiovascular Diseases
AbbreviationProg. Cardiovasc. Dis.
ISSN (print)0033-0620
ScopeCardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

Other styles