How to format your references using the Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smith C. Structural biology. Two geometric solutions to a transporting problem. Science. 2006;311(5758):182-183.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bienz M, He X. Biochemistry. A lipid linchpin for Wnt-Fz docking. Science. 2012;337(6090):44-45.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hu Y, Lee CC, Ribbe MW. Extending the carbon chain: hydrocarbon formation catalyzed by vanadium/molybdenum nitrogenases. Science. 2011;333(6043):753-755.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Polishchuk I, Bracha AA, Bloch L, et al. Coherently aligned nanoparticles within a biogenic single crystal: A biological prestressing strategy. Science. 2017;358(6368):1294-1298.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
El-Haik BS. Axiomatic Quality. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
Maragos P, Potamianos A, Gros P, eds. Multimodal Processing and Interaction: Audio, Video, Text. Vol 33. Springer US; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
DeFrances MC. Molecular Mechanisms of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Insights to Therapy. In: Carr BI, ed. Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Diagnosis and Treatment. Humana Press; 2010:109-130.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases.

Blog post
Andrew E. Genetic Analysis Reveals Human Role in Moa’s Extinction. IFLScience. Published March 18, 2014. Accessed October 30, 2018.’s-extinction/


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Federal Assistance Provided to Institutions of Higher Education. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1976.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Megowan G. A Correlation Study of Emotional Intelligence and Behavioral Style of Bio-Pharmaceutical Industry District Sales Managers. Doctoral dissertation. Pepperdine University; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh MW, Story L. U.S. Inquiry Said to Focus On a Fund In California. New York Times. January 7, 2011:B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleProgress in Cardiovascular Diseases
AbbreviationProg. Cardiovasc. Dis.
ISSN (print)0033-0620
ScopeCardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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