How to format your references using the Production Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Production Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Barabási A-L (2009) Scale-free networks: a decade and beyond. Science 325:412–413
A journal article with 2 authors
Brubaker SW, Monack DM (2015) IMMUNOLOGY. Microbial metabolite triggers antimicrobial defense. Science 348:1207–1208
A journal article with 3 authors
Krug AZ, Jablonski D, Valentine JW (2009) Signature of the end-Cretaceous mass extinction in the modern biota. Science 323:767–771
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Yamagishi K, Onuma K, Suzuki T, et al (2005) Materials chemistry: a synthetic enamel for rapid tooth repair. Nature 433:819

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hunt PJ, Kennedy JE (2005) Financial Derivatives in Theory and Practice: Hunt/Financial Derivatives. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Dale VH, Swanson FJ, Crisafulli CM (2005) Ecological Responses to the 1980 Eruption of Mount St. Helens. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Lapidus ML, van Frankenhuijsen M (2013) Generalized Fractal Strings Viewed as Measures. In: van Frankenhuijsen M (ed) Fractal Geometry, Complex Dimensions and Zeta Functions: Geometry and Spectra of Fractal Strings. Springer, New York, NY, pp 119–135

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Production Engineering.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) New Seaweed Tastes Just Like Bacon When Fried. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1987) Federal Research: Effectiveness of Small Business Innovation Research Program Procedures. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Spisak GM (2012) Particulation. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Lee L (2013) Bring On The Wind And Water. New York Times D2

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleProduction Engineering
ISSN (print)0944-6524
ISSN (online)1863-7353
ScopeIndustrial and Manufacturing Engineering
Mechanical Engineering

Other styles