How to format your references using the Production Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Production Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hansson GK (2007) Medicine. LIGHT hits the liver. Science 316:206–207
A journal article with 2 authors
Tallis H, Lubchenco J (2014) Working together: A call for inclusive conservation. Nature 515:27–28
A journal article with 3 authors
Suttmeier RP, Cao C, Simon DF (2006) Priorities and funding. “Knowledge innovation” and the Chinese Academy of Sciences. Science 312:58–59
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Jiang ZH, Yun S, Lin L, et al (2013) Tailoring dispersion for broadband low-loss optical metamaterials using deep-subwavelength Inclusions. Sci Rep 3:1571

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Levander CF (2013) Where is American Literature? Wiley Blackwell, Oxford, UK
An edited book
Bussmann-Holder A, Keller H (2007) High Tc Superconductors and Related Transition Metal Oxides: Special Contributions in Honor of K. Alex Müller on the Occasion of his 80th Birthday. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Potylitsyn AP, Ryazanov MI, Strikhanov MN, Tishchenko AA (2011) Diffraction Radiation in the Ultraviolet and Soft X-Ray Regions. In: Ryazanov MI, Strikhanov MN, Tishchenko AA (eds) Diffraction Radiation from Relativistic Particles. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 105–136

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Production Engineering.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Artificial Recreation Of Happy Memories May Become The Next Big Weapon Against Depression. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1971) Acquisition and Use of Software Products for Automatic Data Processing Systems in the Federal Government. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Broussard J (2014) An Analysis of Corporal Punishment Practices in the State of Georgia. Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shear MD, Nixon R, Liptak A (2017) Justices Cancel Hearing on Travel Ban as Questions Linger on New Policy. New York Times A12

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleProduction Engineering
ISSN (print)0944-6524
ISSN (online)1863-7353
ScopeIndustrial and Manufacturing Engineering
Mechanical Engineering

Other styles