How to format your references using the Production Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Production Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Padma TV (2005) India’s drug tests. Nature 436:485
A journal article with 2 authors
Burton DR, Weiss RA (2010) AIDS/HIV. A boost for HIV vaccine design. Science 329:770–773
A journal article with 3 authors
Rocha PP, Chaumeil J, Skok JA (2013) Molecular biology. Finding the right partner in a 3D genome. Science 342:1333–1334
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Oikawa H, Suzuki Y, Saito M, et al (2013) Microsecond dynamics of an unfolded protein by a line confocal tracking of single molecule fluorescence. Sci Rep 3:2151

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Marlet R (2012) Program Specialization. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ USA
An edited book
Gomes DA (2016) Regularity Theory for Mean-Field Game Systems. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Borchani H, Chaouachi M, Ben Amor N (2007) Learning Causal Bayesian Networks from Incomplete Observational Data and Interventions. In: Mellouli K (ed) Symbolic and Quantitative Approaches to Reasoning with Uncertainty: 9th European Conference, ECSQARU 2007, Hammamet, Tunisia, October 31 - November 2, 2007. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 17–29

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Production Engineering.

Blog post
Fang J (2014) Tiniest Insect Genome Sequenced. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2004) Aviation Security: Factors Could Limit the Effectiveness of the Transportation Security Administration’s Efforts to Secure Aerial Advertising Operations. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Richardson MM (2013) Challenging the South’s black-white binary: Haliwa-Saponi Indians and political autonomy. Doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barron J (2016) Famous for Its Past, a Small New Jersey Town Struggles to Define Its Future. New York Times A17

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleProduction Engineering
ISSN (print)0944-6524
ISSN (online)1863-7353
ScopeIndustrial and Manufacturing Engineering
Mechanical Engineering

Other styles