How to format your references using the Production Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Production Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Elliott T (2002) Geophysics. Caught offside. Science 295:55–57
A journal article with 2 authors
Labouriau R, Amorim A (2008) Comment on “An association between the kinship and fertility of human couples.” Science 322:1634; author reply 1634
A journal article with 3 authors
Helmus MR, Mahler DL, Losos JB (2014) Island biogeography of the Anthropocene. Nature 513:543–546
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Taylor RW, Benz F, Sigle DO, et al (2014) Watching individual molecules flex within lipid membranes using SERS. Sci Rep 4:5940

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Black R (2016) Pragmatic Software Testing. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Indianapolis, Indiana
An edited book
Zaknich A (2005) Principles of Adaptive Filters and Self-learning Systems. Springer, London
A chapter in an edited book
Nordström L, Babazadeh D (2015) Cyber Physical Approach to HVDC Grid Control. In: Khaitan SK, McCalley JD, Liu CC (eds) Cyber Physical Systems Approach to Smart Electric Power Grid. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 75–101

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Production Engineering.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) Bicycle Bottle System Condenses Humidity From Air Into Drinkable Water. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2016) Revolving Funds: Additional Pricing and Performance Information for FAA and Treasury Funds Could Enhance Agency Decisions on Shared Services. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Eslava Rios J (2015) Automatic melanoma detection in dermatological images. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin J (2016) HBO Ends Talk Show for Ex-Star of ESPN. New York Times B6

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleProduction Engineering
ISSN (print)0944-6524
ISSN (online)1863-7353
ScopeIndustrial and Manufacturing Engineering
Mechanical Engineering

Other styles