How to format your references using the Processes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Processes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Honjo, T. Science and Government. In Search of the Best Grant System. Science 2005, 309, 1329.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hall, A.; Stouffer, R.J. An Abrupt Climate Event in a Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Simulation without External Forcing. Nature 2001, 409, 171–174.
A journal article with 3 authors
Maffione, M.; Morris, A.; Anderson, M.W. Recognizing Detachment-Mode Seafloor Spreading in the Deep Geological Past. Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 2336.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Bourdon, B.; Ribe, N.M.; Stracke, A.; Saal, A.E.; Turner, S.P. Insights into the Dynamics of Mantle Plumes from Uranium-Series Geochemistry. Nature 2006, 444, 713–717.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Allan, D.; Bragg, N. 802.1aq Shortest Path Bridging Design and Evolution; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2012; ISBN 9781118164327.
An edited book
Requirements Engineering: Foundation for Software Quality: 22nd International Working Conference, REFSQ 2016, Gothenburg, Sweden, March 14-17, 2016, Proceedings; Daneva, M., Pastor, O., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; 1st ed. 2016.; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; Vol. 9619; ISBN 9783319302812.
A chapter in an edited book
Thaman, K.H. Partnerships for Progressing Cultural Democracy in Teacher Education in Pacific Island Countries. In Handbook of Teacher Education; Townsend, T., Bates, R., Eds.; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2007; pp. 53–66 ISBN 9781402047725.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Processes.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Remind Me Again, How Can Companies Patent Breast Cancer Genes? (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Mass Transit Grants: Improved Management Could Reduce Misuse of Funds in UMTA’s Region IX; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1991;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Parajuli, B. Students’ Motivations towards Volunteerism: A Comparative Study of the United States and Nepal. Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana: Lafayette, LA, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S. Spending Your Dollars in Europe: Soviet Union; Prices Are Wildly Irrational, but There Is Room to Maneuver. New York Times 1991, 526.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleProcesses
AbbreviationProcesses (Basel)
ISSN (online)2227-9717

Other styles