How to format your references using the Processes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Processes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Priem, J. Scholarship: Beyond the paper. Nature 2013, 495, 437–440.
A journal article with 2 authors
Koren, I.; Feingold, G. Adaptive behavior of marine cellular clouds. Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 2507.
A journal article with 3 authors
Arp, G.; Reimer, A.; Reitner, J. Photosynthesis-induced biofilm calcification and calcium concentrations in Phanerozoic oceans. Science 2001, 292, 1701–1704.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Fujita, T.; Asano, Y.; Ohtsuka, J.; Takada, Y.; Saito, K.; Ohki, R.; Fujii, H. Identification of telomere-associated molecules by engineered DNA-binding molecule-mediated chromatin immunoprecipitation (enChIP). Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 3171.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kontush, A.; Chapman, M.J. High-Density Lipoproteins; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2011; ISBN 9781118158678.
An edited book
Quality and Reliability of Large-Eddy Simulations; Meyers, J., Geurts, B.J., Sagaut, P., Eds.; Ercoftac Series; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2008; Vol. 12; ISBN 9781402085772.
A chapter in an edited book
Hirabayashi, Y. Collective Recognition and Shared Identity: Factors Behind the Emergence and Mobilization Process in a Referendum Movement1. In East Asian Social Movements: Power, Protest, and Change in a Dynamic Region; Broadbent, J., Brockman, V., Eds.; Nonprofit and Civil Society Studies; Springer: New York, NY, 2011; pp. 81–97 ISBN 9780387096254.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Processes.

Blog post
Fang, J. The Visual Centers in the Brains of Blind Crustaceans are Shrinking Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Highway Infrastructure: Interstate Physical Conditions Have Improved, but Congestion and Other Pressures Continue; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2002;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hess, J.P. Exploring the Challenges of Training and Developing Millennials in the Business Environment. Doctoral dissertation, Northcentral University: Scottsdale, AZ, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Woolfe, Z.; Tommasini, A.; Allen, D.; Oestreich, J.R. Beautiful Music to Their Ears. New York Times 2016, C4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleProcesses
AbbreviationProcesses (Basel)
ISSN (online)2227-9717

Other styles