How to format your references using the Processes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Processes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Snoke, D. Spontaneous Bose Coherence of Excitons and Polaritons. Science 2002, 298, 1368–1372.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kourtzi, Z.; Kanwisher, N. Representation of Perceived Object Shape by the Human Lateral Occipital Complex. Science 2001, 293, 1506–1509.
A journal article with 3 authors
Abu-Raddad, L.J.; Patnaik, P.; Kublin, J.G. Dual Infection with HIV and Malaria Fuels the Spread of Both Diseases in Sub-Saharan Africa. Science 2006, 314, 1603–1606.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Willig, K.I.; Rizzoli, S.O.; Westphal, V.; Jahn, R.; Hell, S.W. STED Microscopy Reveals That Synaptotagmin Remains Clustered after Synaptic Vesicle Exocytosis. Nature 2006, 440, 935–939.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Seagal, Z.M.; Surnina, O.M. Ultrasonic Topographical and Pathotopographical Anatomy; John Wiley &;#38; Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2016; ISBN 9781119224068.
An edited book
Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science 2007: 32nd International Symposium, MFCS 2007 Český Krumlov, Czech Republic, August 26-31, 2007 Proceedings; Kučera, L., Kučera, A., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2007; Vol. 4708; ISBN 9783540744559.
A chapter in an edited book
Crabtree, N.J.; Kent, K. Acquisition of DXA in Children and Adolescents. In Bone Health Assessment in Pediatrics: Guidelines for Clinical Practice; Fung, E.B., Bachrach, L.K., Sawyer, A.J., Eds.; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; pp. 89–114 ISBN 9783319304106.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Processes.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. Old Picture Reveals Enceladus’ Geysers Not A New Phenomenon Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Amtrak Training: Improvements Needed for Employees Who Inspect and Maintain Rail Equipment; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1992;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Szurgyi, A.A. Leadership Competencies Required of Army Officers to Counter the Improvised Explosive Device Threat. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix: Phoenix, AZ, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Branch, J. The Man Inside an Oiled Machine. New York Times 2016, D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleProcesses
AbbreviationProcesses (Basel)
ISSN (online)2227-9717

Other styles