How to format your references using the Processes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Processes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Marx, V. Cell Culture: A Better Brew. Nature 2013, 496, 253–258.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gibson, D.G.; Venter, J.C. Synthetic Biology: Construction of a Yeast Chromosome. Nature 2014, 509, 168–169.
A journal article with 3 authors
Walker, J.; Cliff, R.A.; Latham, A.G. U-Pb Isotopic Age of the StW 573 Hominid from Sterkfontein, South Africa. Science 2006, 314, 1592–1594.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Huang, J.; Rozelle, S.; Pray, C.; Wang, Q. Plant Biotechnology in China. Science 2002, 295, 674–676.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Jacquenet, C.; Bourdon, G.; Boucadair, M. Service Automation and Dynamic Provisioning Techniques in IP/MPLS Environments; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2008; ISBN 9780470035146.
An edited book
Bailey, B. ESL Models and Their Application: Electronic System Level Design and Verification in Practice; Martin, G., Ed.; Embedded Systems; Springer US: Boston, MA, 2010; ISBN 9781441909640.
A chapter in an edited book
ten Thij, M.; Bhulai, S. Modelling Trend Progression Through an Extension of the Polya Urn Process. In Advances in Network Science: 12th International Conference and School, NetSci-X 2016, Wroclaw, Poland, January 11-13, 2016, Proceedings; Wierzbicki, A., Brandes, U., Schweitzer, F., Pedreschi, D., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; pp. 57–67 ISBN 9783319283609.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Processes.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Scientists Provide Simple Explanation For Rare Five-Hour Space Explosion Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office NSF Experiment in Research Grant Administration Promising; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1982;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Johnson, A.C. The Lived Experience of the Adult African American Female Who Has Lived in Multiple Foster Care Placements. Doctoral dissertation, Capella University: Minneapolis, MN, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. A Sport Fails in the Most Important Category: Integrity. New York Times 2011, D5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleProcesses
AbbreviationProcesses (Basel)
ISSN (online)2227-9717

Other styles