How to format your references using the Processes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Processes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mignot, E. Physiology. The Perfect Hypnotic? Science 2013, 340, 36–38.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fisher, H.S.; Hoekstra, H.E. Competition Drives Cooperation among Closely Related Sperm of Deer Mice. Nature 2010, 463, 801–803.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kaul, M.; Garden, G.A.; Lipton, S.A. Pathways to Neuronal Injury and Apoptosis in HIV-Associated Dementia. Nature 2001, 410, 988–994.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
van Dellen, A.; Blakemore, C.; Deacon, R.; York, D.; Hannan, A.J. Delaying the Onset of Huntington’s in Mice. Nature 2000, 404, 721–722.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Martindale, W. Global Food Security and Supply; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Oxford, UK, 2014; ISBN 9781118699287.
An edited book
Stem Cell Therapy and Tissue Engineering for Cardiovascular Repair: From Basic Research to Clinical Applications; Dib, N., Taylor, D.A., Diethrich, E.B., Eds.; Springer US: Boston, MA, 2006; ISBN 9780387257884.
A chapter in an edited book
Schär, M.O.; Rodeo, S.A. Biology of Injury and Repair of Soft Tissues of the Shoulder. In Shoulder Arthroscopy: Principles and Practice; Milano, G., Grasso, A., Eds.; Springer: London, 2014; pp. 59–72 ISBN 9781447154266.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Processes.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. What’s Hiding Underneath Jupiter’s Clouds? Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office FAA Facilities: Improved Condition Assessment Methods Could Better Inform Maintenance Decisions and Capital- Planning Efforts; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2013;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Schellhous, W.T. Factors and Interactions Contributing to the Risk of Fire Following Earthquake for Urban Southern California. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Lardner, G., Jr No Country for Second Chances. New York Times 2010, A27.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleProcesses
AbbreviationProcesses (Basel)
ISSN (online)2227-9717

Other styles