How to format your references using the Preventive Veterinary Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Preventive Veterinary Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brown, A., 2008. Obituary: John Templeton (1912-2008). Nature 454, 290.
A journal article with 2 authors
Clement, A., DiNezio, P., 2014. Climate change. The tropical Pacific Ocean--back in the driver’s seat? Science 343, 976–978.
A journal article with 3 authors
Moon-van der Staay, S.Y., De Wachter, R., Vaulot, D., 2001. Oceanic 18S rDNA sequences from picoplankton reveal unsuspected eukaryotic diversity. Nature 409, 607–610.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Takada, K., Sakurai, H., Takayama-Muromachi, E., Izumi, F., Dilanian, R.A., Sasaki, T., 2003. Superconductivity in two-dimensional CoO2 layers. Nature 422, 53–55.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bisen, P.S., Debnath, M., Prasad, G.B.K.S., 2012. Microbes. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Ng, W.-K., Kitsuregawa, M., Li, J., Chang, K. (Eds.), 2006. Advances in Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining: 10th Pacific-Asia Conference, PAKDD 2006, Singapore, April 9-12, 2006. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Bearss, N., 2010. Access and Utilization of Health Care, in: Clauss-Ehlers, C.S. (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Cross-Cultural School Psychology. Springer US, Boston, MA, pp. 72–73.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Preventive Veterinary Medicine.

Blog post
Fang, J., 2015. How Female Parasitoid Wasps Pick Their Caterpillar Victims [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2014. Actions Needed to Address Weaknesses in Information Security and Privacy Controls (No. GAO-14-730). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Adijanto, J., 2010. Metabolic acid transport in human retinal pigment epithelium (Doctoral dissertation). University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dunn, S., 2015. Who Lives, Who Dies. New York Times BR39.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Brown, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Brown, 2008; Clement and DiNezio, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Clement and DiNezio, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Takada et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titlePreventive Veterinary Medicine
AbbreviationPrev. Vet. Med.
ISSN (print)0167-5877
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Food Animals

Other styles