How to format your references using the Preventive Veterinary Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Preventive Veterinary Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bally, J., 2015. Astrophysics: Mystery survivor of a supermassive black hole. Nature 524, 301–302.
A journal article with 2 authors
Holland, M.D., Hastings, A., 2008. Strong effect of dispersal network structure on ecological dynamics. Nature 456, 792–794.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kutnjak, Z., Petzelt, J., Blinc, R., 2006. The giant electromechanical response in ferroelectric relaxors as a critical phenomenon. Nature 441, 956–959.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Helveg, S., López-Cartes, C., Sehested, J., Hansen, P.L., Clausen, B.S., Rostrup-Nielsen, J.R., Abild-Pedersen, F., Nørskov, J.K., 2004. Atomic-scale imaging of carbon nanofibre growth. Nature 427, 426–429.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gottlieb, I., 2009. Next Generation Excel. John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pte. Ltd., 2 Clementi Loop, #02-01, Singapore 129809.
An edited book
Öztürk, M., Böer, B., Barth, H.-J., Clüsener-Godt, M., Khan, M.A., Breckle, S.-W. (Eds.), 2011. Sabkha Ecosystems: Volume III: Africa and Southern Europe, Tasks for Vegetation Science. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Howe, J.R., Calva, D., 2010. Basic Sciences and Genetics: Hamartomatous Polyposis, in: Rodriguez-Bigas, M.A., Cutait, R., Lynch, P.M., Tomlinson, I., Vasen, H.F.A. (Eds.), Hereditary Colorectal Cancer. Springer US, Boston, MA, pp. 87–109.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Preventive Veterinary Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. Why Are We Afraid Of Spiders? [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1970. Review of Accountable Officers’ Accounts, Minneapolis Postal Data Center (No. 092849). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Brasseaux, S., 2015. The Mississippi River-Gulf Outlet and Land Changes in Louisiana Deltaic Plain, Saint Bernard Parish, Louisiana (Doctoral dissertation). University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hofmann, P., Leland, J., 2017. Urban Pastoral. New York Times MB7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bally, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Bally, 2015; Holland and Hastings, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Holland and Hastings, 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Helveg et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titlePreventive Veterinary Medicine
AbbreviationPrev. Vet. Med.
ISSN (print)0167-5877
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Food Animals

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