How to format your references using the Preventive Veterinary Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Preventive Veterinary Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lander, E.S., 2011. Genome-sequencing anniversary. The accelerator. Science 331, 1024.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rikken, G.L., Raupach, E., 2000. Enantioselective magnetochiral photochemistry. Nature 405, 932–935.
A journal article with 3 authors
den Boer, S.P.A., Baer, B., Boomsma, J.J., 2010. Seminal fluid mediates ejaculate competition in social insects. Science 327, 1506–1509.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Li, B., Gogol, M., Carey, M., Lee, D., Seidel, C., Workman, J.L., 2007. Combined action of PHD and chromo domains directs the Rpd3S HDAC to transcribed chromatin. Science 316, 1050–1054.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Matthys, W., Lochman, J.E., 2016. Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Conduct Disorder in Childhood. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Bock, R., Knoop, V. (Eds.), 2012. Genomics of Chloroplasts and Mitochondria, Advances in Photosynthesis and Respiration, Including Bioenergy and Related Processes. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Stojadinović, S., Vasilić, R., Kasalica, B., Belča, I., Zeković, L., 2014. Luminescence During the Electrochemical Oxidation of Aluminum, in: Djokić, S.S. (Ed.), Electrodeposition and Surface Finishing: Fundamentals and Applications, Modern Aspects of Electrochemistry. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 241–302.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Preventive Veterinary Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. How Oversized Atoms Could Help Shrink “Lab-On-A-Chip” Devices [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1983. NASA-Ames Research Center Should Not Have Awarded Computational Services Contract to SBA and Technology Development of California (No. AFMD-83-40). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Galvan, R., 2015. A mixed-methods study of mathematics and science achievement of refugee students in homogeneous and heterogeneous groups (Doctoral dissertation). Capella University, Minneapolis, MN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Philipps, D., Hubbard, B., 2017. U.S. Soldier Who Survived Fatal Attack by a Jordanian Tells His Story. New York Times A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lander, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Lander, 2011; Rikken and Raupach, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rikken and Raupach, 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Li et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titlePreventive Veterinary Medicine
AbbreviationPrev. Vet. Med.
ISSN (print)0167-5877
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Food Animals

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