How to format your references using the Preventive Veterinary Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Preventive Veterinary Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Apeloig, Y., 2011. Chemistry. The diamond within a silicon analog of cyclobutadiene. Science 331, 1277–1278.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tong, F., Engel, S.A., 2001. Interocular rivalry revealed in the human cortical blind-spot representation. Nature 411, 195–199.
A journal article with 3 authors
Winkler, W., Nahvi, A., Breaker, R.R., 2002. Thiamine derivatives bind messenger RNAs directly to regulate bacterial gene expression. Nature 419, 952–956.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Li, J., Ishii, T., Feinstein, P., Mombaerts, P., 2004. Odorant receptor gene choice is reset by nuclear transfer from mouse olfactory sensory neurons. Nature 428, 393–399.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Jones, P., Burger, J., 2009. Configuring SAP® ERP Financials and Controlling. Wiley Publishing, Inc., Indianapolis, IN, USA.
An edited book
Pitilakis, K., Franchin, P., Khazai, B., Wenzel, H. (Eds.), 2014. SYNER-G: Systemic Seismic Vulnerability and Risk Assessment of Complex Urban, Utility, Lifeline Systems and Critical Facilities: Methodology and Applications, Geotechnical, Geological and Earthquake Engineering. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Melhus, I., Arnal, F., Gayraud, T., Jacquemin, B., 2008. SATSIX Mobility Architecture and Its Performance Evaluation, in: Fan, L., Cruickshank, H., Sun, Z. (Eds.), IP Networking over Next-Generation Satellite Systems: International Workshop, Budapest, July 2007. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 59–75.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Preventive Veterinary Medicine.

Blog post
Davis, J., 2016. Doctors May Need To Gender Match Corneal Transplants [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1990. The President’s Decision to Order a Chinese Company’s Divestiture of a Recently Acquired U.S. Aircraft Parts Manufacturer (No. T-NSIAD-90-21). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
O’Neil, D.M., 2013. Climate frequencies of the early Holocene from Foy Lake, Montana (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sánchez, Y., 2014. Goliath Opens His Wallet. New York Times A35.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Apeloig, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Apeloig, 2011; Tong and Engel, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Tong and Engel, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Li et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titlePreventive Veterinary Medicine
AbbreviationPrev. Vet. Med.
ISSN (print)0167-5877
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Food Animals

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