How to format your references using the Preventive Veterinary Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Preventive Veterinary Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Colegrave, N., 2002. Sex releases the speed limit on evolution. Nature 420, 664–666.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jaramillo, F., Destouni, G., 2015. Local flow regulation and irrigation raise global human water consumption and footprint. Science 350, 1248–1251.
A journal article with 3 authors
Branch, T.A., Hively, D.J., Hilborn, R., 2013. Is the ocean food provision index biased? Nature 495, E5-6; discussion E7.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Weill, M., Lutfalla, G., Mogensen, K., Chandre, F., Berthomieu, A., Berticat, C., Pasteur, N., Philips, A., Fort, P., Raymond, M., 2003. Comparative genomics: Insecticide resistance in mosquito vectors. Nature 423, 136–137.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sauter, M., 2013. 3G, 4G and Beyond-Bringing Networks, Devices and the Web Together. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Hutter, K. (Ed.), 2012. Nonlinear Internal Waves in Lakes, Advances in Geophysical and Environmental Mechanics and Mathematics. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Lin, H., 2008. Stratifying Winning Positions in Parity Games, in: Hee, K.M. van, Valk, R. (Eds.), Applications and Theory of Petri Nets: 29th International Conference, PETRI NETS 2008, Xi’an, China, June 23-27, 2008. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 9–11.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Preventive Veterinary Medicine.

Blog post
Andrews, R., 2017. Scientists Discover 40 New Genes Linked To Intelligence [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1971. Weaknesses in School Districts’ Implementation of the Emergency School Assistance Program (No. B-164031(1)). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Joshi, R.A., 2010. Adaptive nulling in multiple beam antennas using quantized state adaptive algorithms (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shear, M.D., Stolberg, S.G., 2017. Senator Goes From Trump Target to Cheerleader as Some in G.O.P. Bolt. New York Times A16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Colegrave, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Colegrave, 2002; Jaramillo and Destouni, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Jaramillo and Destouni, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Weill et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titlePreventive Veterinary Medicine
AbbreviationPrev. Vet. Med.
ISSN (print)0167-5877
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Food Animals

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