How to format your references using the Invertebrate Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Invertebrate Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Barnes DK 2001. Resource availability: Ancient homes for hard-up hermit crabs. Nature 412: 785–786.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wijffels RH & Barbosa MJ 2010. An outlook on microalgal biofuels. Science 329: 796–799.
A journal article with 3 authors
Parens E, Johnston J, & Moses J 2008. Ethics. Do we need “synthetic bioethics”? Science 321: 1449.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wild EM, Teschler-Nicola M, Kutschera W, Steier P, Trinkaus E, & Wanek W 2005. Direct dating of Early Upper Palaeolithic human remains from Mladec. Nature 435: 332–335.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Boxer H 2014. Profitable Day and Swing Trading. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Sarkis J, Cordeiro JJ, & Vazquez Brust D, eds. 2010. Facilitating Sustainable Innovation through Collaboration: A Multi-Stakeholder Perspective. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht. XV, 272 p pp.
A chapter in an edited book
Puri R & Nicholls SJ 2014. Monitoring the Progression and Regression of Coronary Atherosclerosis with Intravascular Ultrasound. In:Imaging Coronary Atherosclerosis. Nicholls SJ & Crowe T, eds., pp. 67–79. Springer, New York, NY.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Invertebrate Biology.

Blog post
Andrew E 2015. Asthmatic Sea Otter Learns To Use An Inhaler. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 2002. Internet Management: Limited Progress on Privatization Project Makes Outcome Uncertain. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Koyanagi T 2017. Design and Synthesis of Archaea-Inspired Tetraether Lipids. Doctoral dissertation, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh MW 2016. Treasury Official Urges Relief for Puerto Rico, but Lawmakers Fear Fallout. New York Times: B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Barnes 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Barnes 2001, Wijffels & Barbosa 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wijffels & Barbosa 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Wild et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleInvertebrate Biology
AbbreviationInvertebr. Biol.
ISSN (print)1077-8306
ISSN (online)1744-7410
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology

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