How to format your references using the Invertebrate Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Invertebrate Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Butler D 2003. Commission lays foundations for rise in research spending. Nature 423: 6.
A journal article with 2 authors
Freed AM & Lin J 2001. Delayed triggering of the 1999 Hector Mine earthquake by viscoelastic stress transfer. Nature 411: 180–183.
A journal article with 3 authors
Krupic J, Burgess N, & O’Keefe J 2012. Neural representations of location composed of spatially periodic bands. Science 337: 853–857.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Kennett DJ, Kennett JP, West A, Mercer C, Hee SSQ, Bement L, Bunch TE, Sellers M, & Wolbach WS 2009. Nanodiamonds in the Younger Dryas boundary sediment layer. Science 323: 94.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Box GEP, Luceño A, & Paniagua-Quiñones MDC 2009. Statistical Control by Monitoring and Adjustment. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
G MMG, R MMM, & Babak AM, eds. 2011. Master Techniques in Blepharoplasty and Periorbital Rejuvenation. Springer, New York, NY. XVIII, 342 p. 445 illus., 438 illus. in color pp.
A chapter in an edited book
Ma H-T & Beaven MA 2011. Regulators of Ca2+ Signaling in Mast Cells: Potential Targets for Treatment of Mast Cell-Related Diseases? In:Mast Cell Biology: Contemporary and Emerging Topics. Gilfillan AM & Metcalfe DD, eds., pp. 62–90. Springer US, Boston, MA.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Invertebrate Biology.

Blog post
Carpineti A 2016. Astronomers Spot Huge Galaxy Cluster From The Early Universe. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 2009. Information Technology: HUD Needs to Strengthen Its Capacity to Manage and Modernize Its Environment. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mackay EA 2009. Title I funding allocation of reserve funds after increased standards for academic proficiency under the federal No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G 2010. Empty Gray Gives Way to Blues and Boos, Just Like Before. New York Times: D7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Butler 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Freed & Lin 2001, Butler 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Freed & Lin 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Kennett et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleInvertebrate Biology
AbbreviationInvertebr. Biol.
ISSN (print)1077-8306
ISSN (online)1744-7410
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology

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