How to format your references using the Invertebrate Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Invertebrate Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kibble T 2014. Gerald Guralnik (1936-2014). Nature 510: 36.
A journal article with 2 authors
Eberly JH & Yu T 2007. Physics. The end of an entanglement. Science 316: 555–557.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yu Q, Geng Y, & Sicinski P 2001. Specific protection against breast cancers by cyclin D1 ablation. Nature 411: 1017–1021.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Forbes DA, Beasley MA, Bekki K, Brodie JP, & Strader J 2003. Galaxy disruption in a halo of dark matter. Science 301: 1217–1219.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dunlop J, Girma D, & Irvine J 2013. Digital Mobile Communications and the Tetra System. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., West Sussex, England.
An edited book
Rockstuhl C & Scharf T, eds. 2013. Amorphous Nanophotonics. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. XVIII, 372 p. 264 illus., 98 illus. in color pp.
A chapter in an edited book
Chisum WJ 2011. Crime Reconstruction and Evidence Dynamics. In:The Forensic Laboratory Handbook Procedures and Practice. Mozayani A & Noziglia C, eds., pp. 105–122. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Invertebrate Biology.

Blog post
Andrew E 2015. Alligator Made To Inhale Helium, For Science! IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 2005. Technology Development: New DOD Space Science and Technology Strategy Provides Basis for Optimizing Investments, but Future Versions Need to Be More Robust. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Walsh EF 2010. The development of comprehensive criminal justice leadership standards: A modified Delphi study approach. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hubbard B 2016. Evacuation Ends, Leaving Aleppo in Government Hands. New York Times: A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kibble 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Eberly & Yu 2007, Kibble 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Eberly & Yu 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Forbes et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleInvertebrate Biology
AbbreviationInvertebr. Biol.
ISSN (print)1077-8306
ISSN (online)1744-7410
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology

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