How to format your references using the Invertebrate Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Invertebrate Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Koenig R 2000. IRANIAN SCIENCE: Iranian Women Hear the Call of Science. Science 290: 1485.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fedo CM & Whitehouse MJ 2002. Metasomatic origin of quartz-pyroxene rock, Akilia, Greenland, and implications for Earth’s earliest life. Science 296: 1448–1452.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wang Y, Forsyth DW, & Savage B 2009. Convective upwelling in the mantle beneath the Gulf of California. Nature 462: 499–501.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wolfe AM, Jorgenson RA, Robishaw T, Heiles C, & Prochaska JX 2008. An 84-microG magnetic field in a galaxy at redshift z = 0.692. Nature 455: 638–640.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
DeRosa DF 2013. Foreign Exchange Operations. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Whitacre DM, ed. 2013. Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. Springer, New York, NY. IX, 144 p pp.
A chapter in an edited book
Schrammel P, Kroening D, Brain M, Martins R, Teige T, & Bienmüller T 2015. Successful Use of Incremental BMC in the Automotive Industry. In:Formal Methods for Industrial Critical Systems: 20th International Workshop, FMICS 2015 Oslo, Norway, June 22-23, 2015 Proceedings. Núñez M & Güdemann M, eds., pp. 62–77. Springer International Publishing, Cham.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Invertebrate Biology.

Blog post
Carpineti A 2016. How The Moon Got Its Tilt Explained By New Model. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 2009. NASA: Assessments of Selected Large-Scale Projects. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Yuan S 2008. Aberrations of anamorphic optical systems. Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G 2010. Sheppard Was Always About The Word. New York Times: B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Koenig 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Koenig 2000, Fedo & Whitehouse 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Fedo & Whitehouse 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Wolfe et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleInvertebrate Biology
AbbreviationInvertebr. Biol.
ISSN (print)1077-8306
ISSN (online)1744-7410
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology

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