How to format your references using the Invertebrate Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Invertebrate Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Benner SA 2001. Natural progression. Nature 409: 459.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mackem S & Lewandoski M 2011. Development. Limb cells don’t tell time. Science 332: 1038–1039.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ekström G, Nettles M, & Tsai VC 2006. Seasonality and increasing frequency of Greenland glacial earthquakes. Science 311: 1756–1758.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Hu S, Chapin FS 3rd, Firestone MK, Field CB, & Chiariello NR 2001. Nitrogen limitation of microbial decomposition in a grassland under elevated CO2. Nature 409: 188–191.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ahonen TT 2006. m-Profits. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Gad SC 2011. Contract Research and Development Organizations: Their Role in Global Product Development Spainhour CB, ed. Springer, New York, NY. XII, 212 p pp.
A chapter in an edited book
Erzin AI & Plotnikov RV 2011. Wireless Sensor Network’s Lifetime Maximization Problem in Case of Given Set of Covers. In:Computational Science and Its Applications - ICCSA 2011: International Conference, Santander, Spain, June 20-23, 2011. Proceedings, Part V. Murgante B, Gervasi O, Iglesias A, Taniar D, & Apduhan BO, eds., pp. 44–57. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Invertebrate Biology.

Blog post
Andrew E 2014. Scientists Discover A Way To Heal A Broken Heart. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1988. [Comments on Agency Participation in SBIR Program]. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Arendt KR 2015. Symbiosis establishment and ecological effects of endohyphal bacteria on foliar fungi. Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg B 2017. Kerber Encounters a Pliskova Test, but Not the Usual One. New York Times: B13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Benner 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Benner 2001, Mackem & Lewandoski 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Mackem & Lewandoski 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Hu et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleInvertebrate Biology
AbbreviationInvertebr. Biol.
ISSN (print)1077-8306
ISSN (online)1744-7410
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology

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