How to format your references using the Invertebrate Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Invertebrate Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Robinson CV 2011. John Fenn (1917-2010). Nature 469: 300.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pauluis O & Dias J 2012. Satellite estimates of precipitation-induced dissipation in the atmosphere. Science 335: 953–956.
A journal article with 3 authors
Catling DC, Zahnle KJ, & McKay C 2001. Biogenic methane, hydrogen escape, and the irreversible oxidation of early Earth. Science 293: 839–843.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ling X, Zhou X, Shu W, Luo H, & Wen S 2014. Realization of tunable photonic spin Hall effect by tailoring the Pancharatnam-berry phase. Sci. Rep. 4: 5557.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sadati N, Dumont GA, Hamed KA, & Gruver WA 2012. Hybrid Control and Motion Planning of Dynamical Legged Locomotion. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Xia Y, ed. 2015. Neural Functions of the Delta-Opioid Receptor. Springer International Publishing, Cham. XV, 685 p. 61 illus., 23 illus. in color pp.
A chapter in an edited book
Heß M & Popov VL 2015. Normal Contact with Adhesion. In:Method of Dimensionality Reduction in Contact Mechanics and Friction. Heß M, ed., pp. 39–63. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Invertebrate Biology.

Blog post
Andrews R 2015. Villagers Attack Mother And Child Orangutan Fleeing From Wildfires. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1995. Technology: America’s Schools Not Designed or Equipped for 21st Century. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Duncan KF 2016. Middle school teachers’ self-perceptions of response to intervention. Doctoral dissertation, Capella University, Minneapolis, MN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J 2017. Alone Among Starters: Healthy and Dominant. New York Times: B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Robinson 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Robinson 2011, Pauluis & Dias 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Pauluis & Dias 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Ling et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleInvertebrate Biology
AbbreviationInvertebr. Biol.
ISSN (print)1077-8306
ISSN (online)1744-7410
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology

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