How to format your references using the Prevention Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Prevention Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wyatt, T. (2007). High-energy colliders and the rise of the standard model. Nature, 448(7151), 274–280.
A journal article with 2 authors
MacArthur, B. D., & Oreffo, R. O. C. (2005). Bridging the gap. Nature, 433(7021), 19.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kovalenko, M. V., Scheele, M., & Talapin, D. V. (2009). Colloidal nanocrystals with molecular metal chalcogenide surface ligands. Science (New York, N.Y.), 324(5933), 1417–1420.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Wittemyer, G., Elsen, P., Bean, W. T., Burton, A. C. O., & Brashares, J. S. (2008). Accelerated human population growth at protected area edges. Science (New York, N.Y.), 321(5885), 123–126.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Yeakley, C. L., & Fiebrich, J. D. (2015). Collaborative Process Improvement. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Graziani, F. (Ed.). (2008). Computational Methods in Transport: Verification and Validation (Vol. 62). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Dong, X., Clark, J. A., & Jacob, J. L. (2008). Threat Modelling in User Performed Authentication. In L. Chen, M. D. Ryan, & G. Wang (Eds.), Information and Communications Security: 10th International Conference, ICICS 2008 Birmingham, UK, October 20 - 22, 2008 Proceedings (pp. 49–64). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Prevention Science.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. (2016, October 21). Bolivia’s Fast-Melting Glaciers Are Leaving Behind Lakes That Could Cause Catastrophic Floods. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2005). Information Technology: FBI Is Building Management Capabilities Essential to Successful System Deployments, but Challenges Remain (No. GAO-05-1014T). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Belic, B. (2005). Complement Verb Variation in Present-Day Serbian (Doctoral dissertation). Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Quain, J. R. (2016, October 13). One Day, Cars Will Connect With Your Fridge and Your Heart. New York Times, p. B5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wyatt 2007).
This sentence cites two references (MacArthur and Oreffo 2005; Wyatt 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (MacArthur and Oreffo 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Wittemyer et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titlePrevention Science
AbbreviationPrev. Sci.
ISSN (print)1389-4986
ISSN (online)1573-6695
ScopePublic Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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