How to format your references using the Practice Periodical on Structural Design and Construction citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Practice Periodical on Structural Design and Construction. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Forbes, P. 2005. “Poetry and science: greatness in little.” Nature, 434 (7031): 320–323.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zuber, M. T., and I. Garrick-Bethell. 2005. “Planetary science. What do we need to know to land on the Moon again?” Science, 310 (5750): 983–985.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wu, J. I., G. R. Crabtree, and G. R. Crabtee. 2007. “Cell signaling. Nuclear actin as choreographer of cell morphology and transcription.” Science, 316 (5832): 1710–1711.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Vassilopoulos, S., C. Esk, S. Hoshino, B. H. Funke, C.-Y. Chen, A. M. Plocik, W. E. Wright, R. Kucherlapati, and F. M. Brodsky. 2009. “A role for the CHC22 clathrin heavy-chain isoform in human glucose metabolism.” Science, 324 (5931): 1192–1196.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hao, L., and J. Lawrence. 2006. Laser Surface Treatment of Bio-Implant Materials. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Gupta, S., W. E. Paul, and R. Steinman (Eds.). 2005. Mechanisms of Lymphocyte Activation and Immune Regulation X: Innate Immunity. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Tonon, G., and L. R. de la Vega. 2014. “The Importance of Friendship in the Construction of Positive Nations.” Positive Nations and Communities: Collective, Qualitative and Cultural-Sensitive Processes in Positive Psychology, Cross-Cultural Advancements in Positive Psychology, H. Águeda Marujo and L. M. Neto, eds., 65–77. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Practice Periodical on Structural Design and Construction.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2014. “The problem of false balance when reporting on science.” IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2015. Results-Oriented Management: OPM Needs to Do More to Ensure Meaningful Distinctions Are Made in SES Ratings and Performance Awards. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Joseph, W. R. 2002. “Physical Characterization of Vernix Caseosa: Implications for Biological Function.” Doctoral dissertation. Cincinnati, OH: University of Cincinnati.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, M. 2012. “Gold to British in Jumpoff With Dutch.” New York Times, August 7, 2012.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Forbes 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Forbes 2005; Zuber and Garrick-Bethell 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Zuber and Garrick-Bethell 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Vassilopoulos et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titlePractice Periodical on Structural Design and Construction
ISSN (print)1084-0680
ISSN (online)1943-5576
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
Civil and Structural Engineering
Building and Construction

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