How to format your references using the Practice Periodical on Structural Design and Construction citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Practice Periodical on Structural Design and Construction. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Chapman, T. (2003). “High throughput goes 3D.” Nature, 425(6960), 871.
A journal article with 2 authors
Koren, I., and Kimchi, A. (2012). “Cell biology. Promoting tumorigenesis by suppressing autophagy.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 338(6109), 889–890.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ronshaugen, M., McGinnis, N., and McGinnis, W. (2002). “Hox protein mutation and macroevolution of the insect body plan.” Nature, 415(6874), 914–917.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Frusawa, H., Manabe, T., Kagiyama, E., Hirano, K., Kameta, N., Masuda, M., and Shimizu, T. (2013). “Electric moulding of dispersed lipid nanotubes into a nanofluidic device.” Scientific reports, 3, 2165.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Freeman, R. L. (2005). Fundamentals of Telecommunications. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Dong, J. S., and Zhu, H. (Eds.). (2010). Formal Methods and Software Engineering: 12th International Conference on Formal Engineering Methods, ICFEM 2010, Shanghai, China, November 17-19, 2010. Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Voyiadjis, G. Z., and Woelke, P. (2008). “Elasto-Plastic Geometrically Non-linear Finite Element Analysis of Thick Plates and Shells.” Elasto-Plastic and Damage Analysis of Plates and Shells, P. Woelke, ed., Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 91–117.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Practice Periodical on Structural Design and Construction.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2016). “A 2000-Year-Old Dog Burial Site Has Been Found Near The Arctic Circle.” IFLScience, IFLScience, <; (Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1994). Space Station: Plans to Expand Research Community Do Not Match Available Resources. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Taylor, C. (2011). “The Crowd.” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, M. (2010). “For Stepping Across a Bridge.” New York Times, E5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Chapman 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Chapman 2003; Koren and Kimchi 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Koren and Kimchi 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Frusawa et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titlePractice Periodical on Structural Design and Construction
ISSN (print)1084-0680
ISSN (online)1943-5576
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
Civil and Structural Engineering
Building and Construction

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