How to format your references using the Practice Periodical on Structural Design and Construction citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Practice Periodical on Structural Design and Construction. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
von Boehmer, H. 2006. “Immunology. Thoracic thymus, exclusive no longer.” Science, 312 (5771): 206–207.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tsymbal, E. Y., and H. Kohlstedt. 2006. “Applied physics. Tunneling across a ferroelectric.” Science, 313 (5784): 181–183.
A journal article with 3 authors
Afek, I., O. Ambar, and Y. Silberberg. 2010. “High-NOON states by mixing quantum and classical light.” Science, 328 (5980): 879–881.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Steinmetz, P. N., A. Roy, P. J. Fitzgerald, S. S. Hsiao, K. O. Johnson, and E. Niebur. 2000. “Attention modulates synchronized neuronal firing in primate somatosensory cortex.” Nature, 404 (6774): 187–190.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
van Helvoort, H. 2005. Next Generation SDH/SONET. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Kerkhove, B. van, and J. P. van Bendegem (Eds.). 2007. Perspectives On Mathematical Practices: Bringing Together Philosophy of Mathematics, Sociology of Mathematics, and Mathematics Education. Logic, Epistemology, and the Unity of Science. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Friptuleac, G., and V. Bernic. 2014. “Argumentation of Hygienic Indicators of Water Quality.” Management of Water Quality in Moldova, Water Science and Technology Library, G. Duca, ed., 71–77. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Practice Periodical on Structural Design and Construction.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2014. “Doctors Pull Live Cricket Out Of Man’s Ear.” IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1972. Payroll Activities, Atlanta Postal Data Center. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bailoor, S. 2016. “Implicit-Explicit Time stepping for a Two-Dimensional Inviscid Fluid-Structure Interaction Solver.” Doctoral dissertation. Washington, DC: George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin, J., and S. Maheshwari. 2017. “Eyes Drift. Marketers Stick to TV.” New York Times, May 14, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (von Boehmer 2006).
This sentence cites two references (von Boehmer 2006; Tsymbal and Kohlstedt 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Tsymbal and Kohlstedt 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Steinmetz et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titlePractice Periodical on Structural Design and Construction
ISSN (print)1084-0680
ISSN (online)1943-5576
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
Civil and Structural Engineering
Building and Construction

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