How to format your references using the Practical Laboratory Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Practical Laboratory Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
A. Abbott, WHO plans study of Gulf War fallout, Nature. 413 (2001) 97.
A journal article with 2 authors
L. Jiao, X. Liu, Structural basis of histone H3K27 trimethylation by an active polycomb repressive complex 2, Science. 350 (2015) aac4383.
A journal article with 3 authors
M. Turalska, B.J. West, P. Grigolini, Role of committed minorities in times of crisis, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 1371.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
N.S. Keenlyside, M. Latif, J. Jungclaus, L. Kornblueh, E. Roeckner, Advancing decadal-scale climate prediction in the North Atlantic sector, Nature. 453 (2008) 84–88.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
F.J. Fabozzi, Institutional Investment Management, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2009.
An edited book
J.M. O’Donnell, F.E. Nácul, eds., Surgical Intensive Care Medicine, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
E.A. Pestana, S. Belak, A. Diallo, J.R. Crowther, G.J. Viljoen, New Trends in the Diagnosis and Molecular Epidemiology of Viral Diseases, in: S. Belak, A. Diallo, J.R. Crowther, G.J. Viljoen (Eds.), Early, Rapid and Sensitive Veterinary Molecular Diagnostics - Real Time PCR Applications, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2010: pp. 47–71.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Practical Laboratory Medicine.

Blog post
R. Andrews, Discovery Of The Source Of World’s Largest Methane Pool Is Anything But Good News, IFLScience. (2017).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Charter Schools: Limited Access to Facility Financing, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2000.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
R.T. Alexander, Can the analytical hierarchy process model be effectively applied in the prioritization of information assurance defense in-depth measures? - a quantitative study, Doctoral dissertation, Capella University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
G. Vecsey, Millrose to Give a Spotlight to Decathletes, New York Times. (2011) B16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePractical Laboratory Medicine
AbbreviationPract. Lab. Med.
ISSN (print)2352-5517

Other styles