How to format your references using the Practical Laboratory Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Practical Laboratory Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
D.M. Braun, Plant science. SWEET! The pathway is complete, Science. 335 (2012) 173–174.
A journal article with 2 authors
L.A. Deschenes, D.A. Vanden Bout, Single-molecule studies of heterogeneous dynamics in polymer melts near the glass transition, Science. 292 (2001) 255–258.
A journal article with 3 authors
W.A. Chalifoux, S.K. Reznik, J.L. Leighton, Direct and highly regioselective and enantioselective allylation of β-diketones, Nature. 487 (2012) 86–89.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
B. Julsgaard, J. Sherson, J.I. Cirac, J. Fiurásek, E.S. Polzik, Experimental demonstration of quantum memory for light, Nature. 432 (2004) 482–486.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
V.V. Acharya, T.F. Cooley, M. Richardson, I. Walter, Regulating Wall Street, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2010.
An edited book
R.W. McGee, ed., Corporate Governance in Developing Economies: Country Studies of Africa, Asia and Latin America, Springer US, Boston, MA, 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
A. Kutikhin, E. Brusina, A.E. Yuzhalin, The Role of Enteroviruses, Parvovirus B19, Respiratory Syncytial Virus, and Measles Virus in Atherosclerosis and Related Diseases, in: E. Brusina, A.E. Yuzhalin (Eds.), Viruses and Atherosclerosis, Springer, New York, NY, 2013: pp. 35–47.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Practical Laboratory Medicine.

Blog post
R. Andrews, Study Reveals That Your Cat Is Basically A Tiny Lion, IFLScience. (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Space Science: Causes and Impacts of Cutbacks to NASA’s Outer Solar System Exploration Missions, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1993.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J. Perkins, “Inside of each story was a piece of my story”: Applied folklore addressing stigma around perinatal mood and anxiety disorders, Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Kanter, Google Yields To Regulators In Eurozone, New York Times. (2017) B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePractical Laboratory Medicine
AbbreviationPract. Lab. Med.
ISSN (print)2352-5517

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