How to format your references using the Practical Laboratory Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Practical Laboratory Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
C. Willyard, Heritability: The family roots of obesity, Nature. 508 (2014) S58-60.
A journal article with 2 authors
C.P. Petersen, P.W. Reddien, Polarized notum activation at wounds inhibits Wnt function to promote planarian head regeneration, Science. 332 (2011) 852–855.
A journal article with 3 authors
R. Arlettaz, G. Jones, P.A. Racey, Effect of acoustic clutter on prey detection by bats, Nature. 414 (2001) 742–745.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
H.H. Chang, M. Hemberg, M. Barahona, D.E. Ingber, S. Huang, Transcriptome-wide noise controls lineage choice in mammalian progenitor cells, Nature. 453 (2008) 544–547.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
P. Jarry, J.N. Beneat, Microwave Amplifier and Active Circuit Design Using the Real Frequency Technique, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ, 2016.
An edited book
M. Singh, Pro SharePoint 2013 Business Intelligence Solutions, Apress, Berkeley, CA, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
H. Pan, J. Gu, Q. Han, X. Feng, X. Xie, P. Li, Medical Image Clustering Algorithm Based on Graph Model, in: K. Li, Z. Xiao, Y. Wang, J. Du, K. Li (Eds.), Parallel Computational Fluid Dynamics: 25th International Conference, ParCFD 2013, Changsha, China, May 20-24, 2013. Revised Selected Papers, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2014: pp. 54–65.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Practical Laboratory Medicine.

Blog post
R. Andrews, Glacial “Aftershock” Causes City-Sized Chunk Of Ice To Break From Antarctica, IFLScience. (2017). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Mass Transit: “Mobility Improvements” Is One of Many Factors Used to Evaluate Mass Transit Projects, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
N. Saldivar, Understanding the impact of AB-12 on the child welfare workforce, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
B. Sisario, After Shake-Up, Pandora Picks Chief of Sling TV To Be Its New C.E.O, New York Times. (2017) B2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePractical Laboratory Medicine
AbbreviationPract. Lab. Med.
ISSN (print)2352-5517

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