How to format your references using the Postgraduate Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Postgraduate Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Springer TA. Immunology. Retrospective: César Milstein (1927-2002). Science. 2002;296(5571):1253.
A journal article with 2 authors
Velicogna I, Wahr J. Measurements of time-variable gravity show mass loss in Antarctica. Science. 2006;311(5768):1754-1756.
A journal article with 3 authors
Martin A, Baker TA, Sauer RT. Rebuilt AAA + motors reveal operating principles for ATP-fuelled machines. Nature. 2005;437(7062):1115-1120.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Knutti R, Stocker TF, Joos F, Plattner G-K. Constraints on radiative forcing and future climate change from observations and climate model ensembles. Nature. 2002;416(6882):719-723.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Alexandridis AK, Zapranis AD. Wavelet Neural Networks. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
Neel BG, Tonks NK, eds. Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases in Cancer. Springer; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Rubin A, Riznichenko G. Oscillations and Periodic Space Structures oscillations and periodic space structures of pH and Electric Potential Along the Cell Membrane of Algae Chara corallina. In: Riznichenko G, ed. Mathematical Biophysics. Biological and Medical Physics, Biomedical Engineering. Springer US; 2014:69-81.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Postgraduate Medicine.

Blog post
Davis J. Scientists Have Reconstructed The Hearing Abilities Of Our Ancestors. IFLScience. Published September 26, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Controls Over Nonimmigrant Aliens Remain Ineffective. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1980.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pham HD. Determination of Default Probability in Auto Finance through Predictive Analytics. Published online 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shear MD, Nixon R. Ban on Travel Will Be Replaced With New Schedule of Targeted Restrictions. New York Times. September 22, 2017:A11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titlePostgraduate Medicine
AbbreviationPostgrad. Med.
ISSN (print)0032-5481
ISSN (online)1941-9260
ScopeGeneral Medicine

Other styles