How to format your references using the Postgraduate Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Postgraduate Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Woodhead J. Earth science: Mixing it up in the mantle. Nature. 2015;517(7534):275-276.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Nordborg M, Weigel D. Next-generation genetics in plants. Nature. 2008;456(7223):720-723.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Li LY, Luo X, Wang X. Endonuclease G is an apoptotic DNase when released from mitochondria. Nature. 2001;412(6842):95-99.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Liu H-D, Chen Y-H, Lin H-F, Tao H-S, Liu W-M. Antiferromagnetic metal and Mott transition on Shastry-Sutherland lattice. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4829.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Gonzalez R, Qi F, Huang B. Process Control System Fault Diagnosis: A Bayesian Approach. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2016.
An edited book
1.
Andrienko N. Exploratory Analysis of Spatial and Temporal Data: A Systematic Approach. (Andrienko G, ed.). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Niephaus C, Kretschmer M, Ghinea G, Hadzic S. Enabling Converged Satellite and Terrestrial Access Networks. In: Nungu A, Pehrson B, Sansa-Otim J, eds. E-Infrastructure and e-Services for Developing Countries: 6th International Conference, AFRICOMM 2014, Kampala, Uganda, November 24-25, 2014, Revised Selected Papers. Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015:43-52.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Postgraduate Medicine.

Blog post
1.
Andrew E. America Is “Dropping Cyberbombs’’ – But How Do They Work?” IFLScience.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Competitiveness: The Challenge of the Deficit. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1990.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Mathes MD. Exploring Factors That Enabled Financial Advisors and Their Firms to Improve Professional Performance After 2008. 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Baker P. President Backs A Plan to Curtail Legal Migration. New York Times. August 2, 2017:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titlePostgraduate Medicine
AbbreviationPostgrad. Med.
ISSN (print)0032-5481
ISSN (online)1941-9260
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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