How to format your references using the Postgraduate Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Postgraduate Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kerr RA. PALEONTOLOGY: Biggest Extinction Hit Land and Sea. Science. 2000;289(5485):1666b-1667b.
A journal article with 2 authors
Nishiizumi K, Caffee MW. Beryllium-10 from the Sun. Science. 2001;294(5541):352-354.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nowacki A, Wookey J, Kendall J-M. Deformation of the lowermost mantle from seismic anisotropy. Nature. 2010;467(7319):1091-1094.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Mori T, Koyama Y, Maeda N, et al. Ultrastructural localization of adiponectin protein in vasculature of normal and atherosclerotic mice. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4895.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mascia L. Polymers in Industry from A-Z. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2011.
An edited book
Dillmann A, Heller G, Krämer E, Kreplin H-P, Nitsche W, Rist U, eds. New Results in Numerical and Experimental Fluid Mechanics IX: Contributions to the 18th STAB/DGLR Symposium, Stuttgart, Germany, 2012. Vol 124. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Dimov I, Georgieva R, Todorov V. Balancing of Systematic and Stochastic Errors in Monte Carlo Algorithms for Integral Equations. In: Dimov I, Fidanova S, Lirkov I, eds. Numerical Methods and Applications: 8th International Conference, NMA 2014, Borovets, Bulgaria, August 20-24, 2014, Revised Selected Papers. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015:44-51.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Postgraduate Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew E. Supersymmetry Dealt Another Blow By LHC. IFLScience. Published July 31, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Information Technology: FBI Is Taking Steps to Develop an Enterprise Architecture, but Much Remains to Be Accomplished. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2005.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Parker DD. Uncovering Three Trumpet Works of Sofia Gubaidulina. 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Chapman MM. G.M.’s Tentative Labor Deal Is Set for Approval by Union Leaders. New York Times. October 27, 2015:B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,1.
This sentence cites four references 1,1,1,1.

About the journal

Full journal titlePostgraduate Medicine
AbbreviationPostgrad. Med.
ISSN (print)0032-5481
ISSN (online)1941-9260
ScopeGeneral Medicine

Other styles