How to format your references using the Postgraduate Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Postgraduate Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ladegaard Skov A. Materials science: Like cartilage, but simpler. Nature. 2015;517(7532):25-26.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kessler A, Baldwin IT. Defensive function of herbivore-induced plant volatile emissions in nature. Science. 2001;291(5511):2141-2144.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ho VM, Lee JA, Martin KC. The cell biology of synaptic plasticity. Science. 2011;334(6056):623-628.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Higashida C, Miyoshi T, Fujita A, et al. Actin polymerization-driven molecular movement of mDia1 in living cells. Science. 2004;303(5666):2007-2010.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mihajlovic-Madzarevic V. Clinical Trials Audit Preparation. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
Consoli FL, Parra JRP, Zucchi RA, eds. Egg Parasitoids in Agroecosystems with Emphasis on Trichogramma. Vol 9. Springer Netherlands; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Tal MC, Iwasaki A. Autophagy and Innate Recognition Systems. In: Levine B, Yoshimori T, Deretic V, eds. Autophagy in Infection and Immunity. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology. Springer; 2009:107-121.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Postgraduate Medicine.

Blog post
Hamilton K. Ancient DNA In Lake Mud Sheds Light On The Mystery Of How Humans First Reached America. IFLScience. Published August 11, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Comments on Department of Education Use of Subsequent-Year Appropriations. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1990.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tapal SS. Is the Fourth Generation of Six Sigma an Effective Professional Development Model in K-12 Education? Doctoral dissertation. University of Phoenix; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Mele C, Shpigel B. Former Jets Is Fatally Shot. New York Times. December 2, 2016:B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titlePostgraduate Medicine
AbbreviationPostgrad. Med.
ISSN (print)0032-5481
ISSN (online)1941-9260
ScopeGeneral Medicine

Other styles