How to format your references using the Postgraduate Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Postgraduate Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ryan MJ. Replication in field biology: the case of the frog-eating bat. Science. 2011;334(6060):1229-1230.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kofoed EM, Vance RE. Innate immune recognition of bacterial ligands by NAIPs determines inflammasome specificity. Nature. 2011;477(7366):592-595.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lightowlers RN, Taylor RW, Turnbull DM. Mutations causing mitochondrial disease: What is new and what challenges remain? Science. 2015;349(6255):1494-1499.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Press D, Ladd TD, Zhang B, Yamamoto Y. Complete quantum control of a single quantum dot spin using ultrafast optical pulses. Nature. 2008;456(7219):218-221.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Potter L. The Life of William Shakespeare. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2012.
An edited book
Rabe KM, Ahn CH, Triscone J-M, eds. Physics of Ferroelectrics: A Modern Perspective. Vol 105. Springer; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
Meller P, Gana J. Perspectives on Latin American Technological Innovation. In: Foxley A, Stallings B, eds. Innovation and Inclusion in Latin America: Strategies to Avoid the Middle Income Trap. Palgrave Macmillan US; 2016:89-114.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Postgraduate Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew E. Woman Meets The Man Wearing Her Dead Brother’s Face. IFLScience. Published May 29, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. State Department: Overseas Emergency Security Program Progressing, But Costs Are Increasing. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2000.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lieberman DS. “Stroke Your Thoroughbreds and Kick Your Donkeys”: Power and the Secondary Administrative Distribution of Teaching Assignments. Published online 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
James C. The Talented Mr. Gilmour. New York Times. September 8, 2017:BR14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titlePostgraduate Medicine
AbbreviationPostgrad. Med.
ISSN (print)0032-5481
ISSN (online)1941-9260
ScopeGeneral Medicine

Other styles