How to format your references using the Population, Space and Place citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Population, Space and Place. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Heisenberg M. 2009. Is free will an illusion? Nature 459: 164–165
A journal article with 2 authors
Flanagan JR, Johansson RS. 2003. Action plans used in action observation. Nature 424: 769–771
A journal article with 3 authors
Grubb PJ, Coomes DA, Metcalfe DJ. 2005. Comment on ‘A brief history of seed size’. Science (New York, N.Y.) 310: 783; author reply 783
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Spietz L, Lehnert KW, Siddiqi I, Schoelkopf RJ. 2003. Primary electronic thermometry using the shot noise of a tunnel junction. Science (New York, N.Y.) 300: 1929–1932

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rainey LD. 2010. Confucius & Confucianism. Wiley-Blackwell: Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Darie C. 2006. Beginning ASP.NET 2.0 E-Commerce in C# 2005: From Novice to Professional (K Watson, ed.). Apress: Berkeley, CA.
A chapter in an edited book
Teruel MA, Navarro E, López-Jaquero V, Montero F, González P. 2011. CSRML: A Goal-Oriented Approach to Model Requirements for Collaborative Systems. In Conceptual Modeling – ER 2011: 30th International Conference, ER 2011, Brussels, Belgium, October 31 - November 3, 2011. Proceedings, Jeusfeld M, , Delcambre L, , Ling T-W (eds).Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg; 33–46.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Population, Space and Place.

Blog post
Taub B. 2016. Spiders Can Hear You From Several Meters Away – Even Without Any Ears. IFLScience Available at: [Accessed 30 October 2018]


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1998. Information Technology: Assessment of the Department of Commerce’s Report on Workforce Demand and Supply. HEHS-98-106. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Warren KL. 2014. Agents of change: A new role for learners in online workplace training.Doctoral dissertation, Capella University, Minneapolis, MN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K. 2001. . . . And the Upper West Side Loses Its Plain-Vanilla Grocery. New York Times: 1410

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Heisenberg, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Flanagan and Johansson, 2003; Heisenberg, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Flanagan and Johansson, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Spietz et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titlePopulation, Space and Place
AbbreviationPopul. Space Place
ISSN (print)1544-8444
ISSN (online)1544-8452
ScopeGeography, Planning and Development

Other styles