How to format your references using the Population, Space and Place citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Population, Space and Place. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sabadini R. 2002. Paleoclimate. Ice sheet collapse and sea level change. Science (New York, N.Y.) 295: 2376–2377
A journal article with 2 authors
Cerdán PD, Chory J. 2003. Regulation of flowering time by light quality. Nature 423: 881–885
A journal article with 3 authors
Chouard T, Weiss U, Dhand R. 2002. Good ‘omics’ for the poor? Nature 419: 489
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Ma C, Han M, Heinrich B, Fu Q, Zhang Q, Sandhu M, Agdashian D, Terabe M, Berzofsky JA, Fako V, et al. 2018. Gut microbiome-mediated bile acid metabolism regulates liver cancer via NKT cells. Science (New York, N.Y.) 360

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chow S-C, Liu J-P. 2005. Design and Analysis of Clinical Trials: Concepts and Methodologies. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Escobar S (ed.). 2010. Functional and Constraint Logic Programming: 18th International Workshop, WFLP 2009, Brasilia, Brazil, June 28, 2009, Revised Selected Papers. Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Lorenz K, Lal R. 2012. Terrestrial Carbon Management in Urban Ecosystems and Water Quality. In Carbon Sequestration in Urban Ecosystems, Lal R, , Augustin B (eds).Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht; 73–100.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Population, Space and Place.

Blog post
Hale T. 2016. Oil Starts To Flow In Untouched Corner Of Ecuador’s Biodiversity Haven. IFLScience Available at: [Accessed 30 October 2018]


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1975. Contract Award of the Law Enforcement Assistance Administration to the Institute for Law and Social Research. GGD-76-9. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Miller RL. 2015. Models for the Interaction of Structured Populations and the Environment.Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
St. John Kelly E. 1994. Groups Trace Soldiers’ Footsteps. New York Times: 514

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sabadini, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Sabadini, 2002; Cerdán and Chory, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Cerdán and Chory, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Ma et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titlePopulation, Space and Place
AbbreviationPopul. Space Place
ISSN (print)1544-8444
ISSN (online)1544-8452
ScopeGeography, Planning and Development

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