How to format your references using the Population, Space and Place citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Population, Space and Place. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Soares D. 2002. Neurology: an ancient sensory organ in crocodilians. Nature 417: 241–242
A journal article with 2 authors
Rolett B, Diamond J. 2004. Environmental predictors of pre-European deforestation on Pacific islands. Nature 431: 443–446
A journal article with 3 authors
Kim S, Wong P, Coulombe PA. 2006. A keratin cytoskeletal protein regulates protein synthesis and epithelial cell growth. Nature 441: 362–365
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Boulanger MJ, Chow D-C, Brevnova EE, Garcia KC. 2003. Hexameric structure and assembly of the interleukin-6/IL-6 alpha-receptor/gp130 complex. Science (New York, N.Y.) 300: 2101–2104

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hunt-Ahmed K. 2013. Contemporary Islamic Finance. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Lacroix C, Mendels P, Mila F (eds). 2011. Introduction to Frustrated Magnetism: Materials, Experiments, Theory. Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Ono T. 2005. LMI-based Design. In Control Systems Design: A New Framework, Zakian V (ed.).Springer: London; 145–164.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Population, Space and Place.

Blog post
Hamilton K. 2016. Why Scientists’ Failure To Understand GM Opposition Is Stifling Debate And Halting Progress. IFLScience Available at: [Accessed 30 October 2018]


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2006. Aviation Security: Significant Management Challenges May Adversely Affect Implementation of the Transportation Security Administration’s Secure Flight Program. GAO-06-374T. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lee Y-J. 2010. Copying and summarizing: Possible tools to develop English reading and writing for university students of different proficiency levels in Korea.Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kulish N, Clark N. 2015. Warning Signs in the Mind of a Pilot Determined to Die. New York Times: A1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Soares, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Soares, 2002; Rolett and Diamond, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rolett and Diamond, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Boulanger et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titlePopulation, Space and Place
AbbreviationPopul. Space Place
ISSN (print)1544-8444
ISSN (online)1544-8452
ScopeGeography, Planning and Development

Other styles