How to format your references using the Population, Space and Place citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Population, Space and Place. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hodson R. 2015. Prostate cancer: 4 big questions. Nature 528: S137
A journal article with 2 authors
Holman MJ, Murray NW. 2005. The use of transit timing to detect terrestrial-mass extrasolar planets. Science (New York, N.Y.) 307: 1288–1291
A journal article with 3 authors
Kanai T, Minemoto S, Sakai H. 2005. Quantum interference during high-order harmonic generation from aligned molecules. Nature 435: 470–474
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Gu B, Chang J, Min Y, Ge Y, Zhu Q, Galloway JN, Peng C. 2013. The role of industrial nitrogen in the global nitrogen biogeochemical cycle. Scientific reports 3: 2579

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Morag N. 2011. Comparative Homeland Security. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Bagińska E (ed.). 2016. Damages for Violations of Human Rights: A Comparative Study of Domestic Legal Systems. Springer International Publishing: Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Walderhaug S, Stav E, Tomassen SL, Røstad L, Moe NB. 2006. MAFIIA — An Architectural Description Framework: Experience from the Health Care Domain. In Interoperability of Enterprise Software and Applications, Konstantas D, , Bourrières J-P, , Léonard M, , Boudjlida N (eds).Springer: London; 43–54.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Population, Space and Place.

Blog post
Andrew E. 2015. How Science Lost One Of Its Greatest Minds In The Trenches Of Gallipoli. IFLScience Available at: [Accessed 30 October 2018]


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2014. Tobacco Product Regulation: Most FDA Spending Funded Public Education, Regulatory Science, and Compliance and Enforcement Activities. GAO-14-561. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nakano AM. 2012. Community college swirlers and the transfer function.Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik J. 2016. A Debate? Or Rivals Just Trying to Go Viral? New York Times: A15

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hodson, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Hodson, 2015, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Holman and Murray, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Gu et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titlePopulation, Space and Place
AbbreviationPopul. Space Place
ISSN (print)1544-8444
ISSN (online)1544-8452
ScopeGeography, Planning and Development

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