How to format your references using the Population, Space and Place citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Population, Space and Place. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fauci AS. 2008. 25 years of HIV. Nature 453: 289–290
A journal article with 2 authors
Surani A, Smith J. 2007. Obituary: Anne McLaren (1927-2007). Nature 448: 764–765
A journal article with 3 authors
Yanagisawa S, Yoo S-D, Sheen J. 2003. Differential regulation of EIN3 stability by glucose and ethylene signalling in plants. Nature 425: 521–525
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Currie MJ, Mapel JK, Heidel TD, Goffri S, Baldo MA. 2008. High-efficiency organic solar concentrators for photovoltaics. Science (New York, N.Y.) 321: 226–228

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kothari V. 2008. Credit Derivatives and Structured Credit Trading. John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pte. Ltd.: 2 Clementi Loop, #02-01, Singapore 129809.
An edited book
Somasundaram I (ed.). 2014. Stem Cell Therapy for Organ Failure. Springer India: New Delhi.
A chapter in an edited book
Yates SM. 2009. Professional Competencies: Perspectives and Challenges for the Tertiary Sector. In International Perspectives on Competence in the Workplace: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice, Velde CR (ed.).Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht; 87–99.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Population, Space and Place.

Blog post
Andrew E. 2016. The Science Of Why Are Some People Attracted To Children. IFLScience Available at: [Accessed 30 October 2018]


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1971. Airport Safety Inspection Program Needed To Improve Flight Safety of Civil Aircraft. B-164497(1). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sylvain O. 2010. Domesticating “the Great, Throbbing, Common Pulse of America”: A Study of the Ideological Origins of the Radio Act of 1927.Doctoral dissertation, Columbia University, New York, NY.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams J. 2017. Going After Big Prey. New York Times: BR6

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Fauci, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Surani and Smith, 2007; Fauci, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Surani and Smith, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Currie et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titlePopulation, Space and Place
AbbreviationPopul. Space Place
ISSN (print)1544-8444
ISSN (online)1544-8452
ScopeGeography, Planning and Development

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