How to format your references using the Polymers citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Polymers. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bowman, D. Conservation: Bring Elephants to Australia? Nature 2012, 482, 30.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rignot, E.; Kanagaratnam, P. Changes in the Velocity Structure of the Greenland Ice Sheet. Science 2006, 311, 986–990.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nilius, N.; Wallis, T.M.; Ho, W. Development of One-Dimensional Band Structure in Artificial Gold Chains. Science 2002, 297, 1853–1856.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Kurihara, S.; Ohta, K.; Oda, T.; Izumi, R.; Kuwahara, Y.; Ogata, T.; Kim, S.-N. Manipulation and Assembly of Small Objects in Liquid Crystals by Dynamical Disorganizing Effect of Push-Pull-Azobenzene-Dye. Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 2167.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hampel, F.R.; Ronchetti, E.M.; Rousseeuw, P.J.; Stahel, W.A. Robust Statistics; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2005; ISBN 9781118186435.
An edited book
Graphics Recognition. Current Trends and Challenges: 10th International Workshop, GREC 2013, Bethlehem, PA, USA, August 20-21, 2013, Revised Selected Papers; Lamiroy, B., Ogier, J.-M., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2014; Vol. 8746; ISBN 9783662448533.
A chapter in an edited book
Ranji, M.; Hadaegh, A.R. Comprehensive Genetic Database of Expressed Sequence Tags for Coccolithophorids. In Advances in Computational Algorithms and Data Analysis; Ao, S.-I., Rieger, B., Chen, S.-S., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2009; pp. 51–64 ISBN 9781402089183.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Polymers.

Blog post
Luntz, S. Human Influence On Climate Dates Back 180 Years Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office [Comments on FAA Employee’s Claim for Backpay]; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1994;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Shakya, R.M. Watershed-Scale Evaluation of Flood Reduction Effect of Low Impact Development Designs. Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University: Edwardsville, IL, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Branch, J. The Ultimate Hunt: Sheep. New York Times 2017, SP1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePolymers
AbbreviationPolymers (Basel)
ISSN (online)2073-4360

Other styles