How to format your references using the PLOS Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for PLOS Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Starr C. Powerful reactions. Nature. 2000;406: 679.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lindvall O, Kokaia Z. Stem cells for the treatment of neurological disorders. Nature. 2006;441: 1094–1096.
A journal article with 3 authors
Monteggia LM, Malenka RC, Deisseroth K. Depression: the best way forward. Nature. 2014;515: 200–201.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Zhang J, Zhao Y, Zhao X, Liu Z, Chen W. Porous perovskite LaNiO3 nanocubes as cathode catalysts for Li-O2 batteries with low charge potential. Sci Rep. 2014;4: 6005.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chandler C. The Science of ADHD. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2010.
An edited book
Torbeyns J, Lehtinen E, Elen J, editors. Describing and Studying Domain-Specific Serious Games. 1st ed. 2015. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Adamson SO, Kharlampidi DD, Dementiev AI. Application of the Uniformly Charged Sphere Stabilization for Calculating the Lowest 1 S Resonances of H −. In: Hotokka M, Brändas EJ, Maruani J, Delgado-Barrio G, editors. Advances in Quantum Methods and Applications in Chemistry, Physics, and Biology. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2013. pp. 101–118.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for PLOS Medicine.

Blog post
Andrews R. High-Intensity Workouts Could Slow Down Your Aging By Almost A Decade. In: IFLScience. IFLScience; 12 May 2017.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Student Financial Aid: Education Can Do More to Screen Schools Before Students Receive Aid. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1991 Sep. Report No.: HRD-91-145.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Yu B. Periodic Motions and Bifurcation Tree in a Periodically Excited Oscillator with Quadratic Nonlinearity. Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University. 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg B. Looking for a Favorite, and Falling Short. New York Times. 21 May 2017: D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePLOS Medicine
AbbreviationPLoS Med.
ISSN (print)1549-1277
ISSN (online)1549-1676
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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