How to format your references using the Physiotherapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Physiotherapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kauranen M. Physics. Freeing nonlinear optics from phase matching. Science 2013;342:1182–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Knorr G, Lohmann G. Southern Ocean origin for the resumption of Atlantic thermohaline circulation during deglaciation. Nature 2003;424:532–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ammerman AJ, Pinhasi R, Bánffy E. Comment on “Ancient DNA from the first European farmers in 7500-year-old Neolithic sites.” Science 2006;312:1875; author reply 1875.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Schmidt M, Amann A, Keeney L, Pemble ME, Holmes JD, Petkov N, et al. Absence of evidence ≠ evidence of absence: statistical analysis of inclusions in multiferroic thin films. Sci Rep 2014;4:5712.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Eynon J. The Design Manager’s Handbook. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2013.
An edited book
Chang AC, Brawer Silva D, editors. Salinity and Drainage in San Joaquin Valley, California: Science, Technology, and Policy. vol. 5. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Bansaye V, Méléard S. Continuous State Branching Processes. In: Bansaye V, editor. Stochastic Models for Structured Populations: Scaling Limits and Long Time Behavior, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015, p. 29–38.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Physiotherapy.

Blog post
Andrew E. Daylight Savings Is Linked To Injuries And Heart Attacks, Is It Time To Scrap It? IFLScience 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. NASA: Sound Management and Oversight Key to Addressing Crew Exploration Vehicle Project Risks. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2006.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pierre RR. A Phenomenological Study of the Boomerang-Employment Experience of Scientists and Engineers. Doctoral dissertation. George Washington University, 2019.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L. Justices Agree to Hear Case Challenging Voter ID Laws. New York Times 2007:A24.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePhysiotherapy
ISSN (print)0031-9406
ScopePhysical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

Other styles