How to format your references using the Physiotherapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Physiotherapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zhu Z. Astrophysics: Growing planet brought to light. Nature 2015;527:310–1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Finney J, Acton JM. Nuclear-weapons dismantlement: identifying a hidden warhead. Nature 2014;510:476–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sugrue LP, Corrado GS, Newsome WT. Matching behavior and the representation of value in the parietal cortex. Science 2004;304:1782–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Muttoni G, Erba E, Kent DV, Bachtadse V. Mesozoic Alpine facies deposition as a result of past latitudinal plate motion. Nature 2005;434:59–63.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hamad WY. Cellulose Nanocrystals. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2017.
An edited book
Compans RW, Oldstone MBA, editors. Influenza Pathogenesis and Control - Volume I. vol. 385. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Cayuela A. Vulnerable: To Be Between Life and Death. In: Masferrer A, García-Sánchez E, editors. Human Dignity of the Vulnerable in the Age of Rights: Interdisciplinary Perspectives, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016, p. 63–79.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Physiotherapy.

Blog post
Carpineti A. Life May Develop Even Outside The Habitable Zone. IFLScience 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. School Vouchers: Publicly Funded Programs in Cleveland and Milwaukee. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2001.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Burchman EK. A dialogue on improvisation, space and melody: Larry Koonse’s approach to improvisation. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hubbard B. Saudi Arabia to Rescind Ban on Female Drivers. New York Times 2017:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePhysiotherapy
ISSN (print)0031-9406
ScopePhysical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

Other styles