How to format your references using the Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Coaker, G., 2014. Botany. Pathogen specialization. Science 343, 496–497.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bongaarts, J., Over, M., 2010. Public health. Global HIV/AIDS policy in transition. Science 328, 1359–1360.
A journal article with 3 authors
Savukov, I.M., Lee, S.-K., Romalis, M.V., 2006. Optical detection of liquid-state NMR. Nature 442, 1021–1024.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Erkel, C., Kube, M., Reinhardt, R., Liesack, W., 2006. Genome of Rice Cluster I archaea--the key methane producers in the rice rhizosphere. Science 313, 370–372.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zaragoza Dörwald, F., 2004. Side Reactions in Organic Synthesis. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, FRG.
An edited book
Giambene, G. (Ed.), 2007. Resource Management in Satellite Networks: Optimization and Cross-Layer Design. Springer US, Boston, MA.
A chapter in an edited book
Yoshiuchi, K., 2014. Momentary Measurement of Psychosocial Factors, in: Dollard, M.F., Shimazu, A., Bin Nordin, R., Brough, P., Tuckey, M.R. (Eds.), Psychosocial Factors at Work in the Asia Pacific. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 117–125.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors.

Blog post
Andrews, R., 2015. Mathematical Bedtime Stories Significantly Improve School Performance [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2000. Early Childhood Programs: Characteristics Affect the Availability of School Readiness Information (No. HEHS-00-38). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chan, B.K., 2017. Hyperboloid-Parameterized Description of Diffusive Superconducting-Magnetic Hybrid Systems (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Robinson, L., 2008. The Little Battles We Must Win. New York Times WK9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Coaker, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Bongaarts and Over, 2010; Coaker, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bongaarts and Over, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Erkel et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titlePhysics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors
AbbreviationPhys. Earth Planet. Inter.
ISSN (print)0031-9201
Space and Planetary Science
Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)
Astronomy and Astrophysics

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