How to format your references using the Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Holden, D.W., 2015. Microbiology. Persisters unmasked. Science 347, 30–32.
A journal article with 2 authors
Virgin, H.W., Walker, B.D., 2010. Immunology and the elusive AIDS vaccine. Nature 464, 224–231.
A journal article with 3 authors
James, A., Pitchford, J.W., Plank, M.J., 2013. James et al. reply. Nature 500, E2-3.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Suematsu, S., Harano, K.-I., Tanaka, S., Kawaura, K., Ogihara, Y., Watari, Y., Saito, O., Tokuda, M., 2013. Effects of barley chromosome addition to wheat on behavior and development of Locusta migratoria nymphs. Sci. Rep. 3, 2577.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Köhler, M., 2005. Nanotechnologie. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, FRG.
An edited book
Leonard, T., Willis, P. (Eds.), 2008. Pedagogies of the Imagination: Mythopoetic Curriculum in Educational Practice. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Gronau, H.-D., Langmann, H.-H., Schleicher, D., 2011. Programme, in: Gronau, H.-D., Langmann, H.-H., Schleicher, D. (Eds.), 50th IMO - 50 Years of International Mathematical Olympiads. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 27–45.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2014. Scientists Turn Stem Cells Into Cancer-Destroyers [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1992. Federal Procurements: Comments on Proposed Legislation Affecting Federal Procurements (No. T-OGC-92-3). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Teo, Y.M., 2017. Acculturation Levels, Social Media Usage and Their Relationship with Dietary Patterns among Asian American Young Adults (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams, J., 2017. A Hidden Hero Brought to Light. New York Times C6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (DiBiase, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Bignami, 2000; Pirandola, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Virgin and Walker, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Palacios et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titlePhysics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors
AbbreviationPhys. Earth Planet. Inter.
ISSN (print)0031-9201
Space and Planetary Science
Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)
Astronomy and Astrophysics

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