How to format your references using the Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stebbins, J.F., 2002. Materials science. Dynamics in ceramics. Science 297, 1285–1287.
A journal article with 2 authors
Barker, S., Elderfield, H., 2002. Foraminiferal calcification response to glacial-interglacial changes in atmospheric CO2. Science 297, 833–836.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sasaki, T., Yamamoto, Y., Koashi, M., 2014. Practical quantum key distribution protocol without monitoring signal disturbance. Nature 509, 475–478.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Hocking, W.K., Carey-Smith, T., Tarasick, D.W., Argall, P.S., Strong, K., Rochon, Y., Zawadzki, I., Taylor, P.A., 2007. Detection of stratospheric ozone intrusions by windprofiler radars. Nature 450, 281–284.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
French, M., Szepesvári, C., Rogers, E., 2005. Performance of Nonlinear Approximate Adaptive Controllers. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Bunke, H., 2007. A Graph-Theoretic Approach to Enterprise Network Dynamics, Progress in Computer Science and Applied Logic (PCS). Birkhäuser, Boston, MA.
A chapter in an edited book
Maruhn, J.A., Reinhard, P.-G., Suraud, E., 2010. Approaches Based on Model Spaces, in: Reinhard, P.-G., Suraud, E. (Eds.), Simple Models of Many-Fermion Systems. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 93–116.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors.

Blog post
Fang, J., 2015. Pigeons Wearing Eye Patches Must Learn New Routes Home [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2005. Computer-Based Patient Records: VA and DOD Made Progress, but Much Work Remains to Fully Share Medical Information (No. GAO-05-1051T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Maddox, A.L., 2017. Secondary Structure Analysis of the C-Terminus of Gα-Interacting Vesicle Associated Protein Using Circular Dichroism Spectroscopy (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), S.K., 2005. World Briefing | Europe: Russia: 9 Years For Chechen In Terror Case. New York Times A8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Stebbins, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Barker and Elderfield, 2002; Stebbins, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Barker and Elderfield, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Hocking et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titlePhysics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors
AbbreviationPhys. Earth Planet. Inter.
ISSN (print)0031-9201
Space and Planetary Science
Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)
Astronomy and Astrophysics

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