How to format your references using the Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Henrich, J., 2014. Psychology. Rice, psychology, and innovation. Science 344, 593–594.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mullen, G.M., Mullins, C.B., 2014. Chemistry. Water’s place in Au catalysis. Science 345, 1564–1565.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhao, M., Kong, L., Qu, H., 2014. A systems biology approach to identify intelligence quotient score-related genomic regions, and pathways relevant to potential therapeutic treatments. Sci. Rep. 4, 4176.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Morton, G.J., Cummings, D.E., Baskin, D.G., Barsh, G.S., Schwartz, M.W., 2006. Central nervous system control of food intake and body weight. Nature 443, 289–295.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lunn, G., Sansone, E.B., 2012. Destruction of Hazardous Chemicals in the Laboratory. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Briscoe, J., 2014. Nanostructured Piezoelectric Energy Harvesters, SpringerBriefs in Materials. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Morange, M., 2007. Genetics, Life and Death, in: Fagot-Largeault, A., Rahman, S., Torres, J.M. (Eds.), The Influence of Genetics on Contemporary Thinking. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 51–60.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J., 2017. Water Ice Seen Inside A Comet For The First Time Thanks To A Massive Landslide [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1984. A Long-Term Plan Is Needed To Guide DOE and Multiprogram Laboratory Research and Development Activities (No. RCED-84-30). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Savvas, C., 2010. Hydroclimate variability and landuse effects on nutrient export from watersheds in the mid-Atlantic United States (Doctoral dissertation). University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M.W., 2016. Hedge Funds Sue Governor of Puerto Rico Over Spending. New York Times B6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Henrich, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Henrich, 2014; Mullen and Mullins, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Mullen and Mullins, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Morton et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titlePhysics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors
AbbreviationPhys. Earth Planet. Inter.
ISSN (print)0031-9201
Space and Planetary Science
Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)
Astronomy and Astrophysics

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