How to format your references using the American Family Physician citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for American Family Physician. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Speed T. Mathematics. A correlation for the 21st century. Science. 2011 Dec 16;334(6062):1502–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Waterhouse PM, Fusaro AF. Plant science. Viruses face a double defense by plant small RNAs. Science. 2006 Jul 7;313(5783):54–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Kessler A, Halitschke R, Baldwin IT. Silencing the jasmonate cascade: induced plant defenses and insect populations. Science. 2004 Jul 30;305(5684):665–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Murata K, Mitsuoka K, Hirai T, Walz T, Agre P, Heymann JB, et al. Structural determinants of water permeation through aquaporin-1. Nature. 2000 Oct 5;407(6804):599–605.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
CCPS. Guidelines for Mechanical Integrity Systems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2006.
An edited book
1.
Robshaw M, Katz J, editors. Advances in Cryptology – CRYPTO 2016: 36th Annual International Cryptology Conference, Santa Barbara, CA, USA, August 14-18, 2016, Proceedings, Part III. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2016. XIII, 651 p. 77 illus. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science; vol. 9816).
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Sakiyama K, Batina L. Arithmetic for Public-Key Cryptography. In: Verbauwhede IMR, editor. Secure Integrated Circuits and Systems. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2010. p. 63–78. (Integrated Circuits and Systems).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for American Family Physician.

Blog post
1.
Carpineti A. Mars Is Still Losing Water But Not Continuously [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/space/mars-is-still-losing-water-but-not-continuously/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. National Aero-Space Plane: Key Issues Facing the Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1992 Mar. Report No.: T-NSIAD-92-26.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Pearson D. A High-Level Fuzzy Logic Guidance System for an Unmanned Surface Vehicle (USV) Tasked to Perform an Autonomous Launch and Recovery (ALR) of an Unmanned Underwater Vehicle (UUV) [Doctoral dissertation]. [Boca Raton, FL]: Florida Atlantic University; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Kaminer A, Southall A. Baruch College Student Dies After Fraternity Ritual in Poconos. New York Times. 2013 Dec 12;A29.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleAmerican Family Physician
ISSN (print)0002-838X
ISSN (online)1532-0650
Scope

Other styles