How to format your references using the American Family Physician citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for American Family Physician. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Willcox G. Anthropology. The roots of cultivation in southwestern Asia. Science. 2013 Jul 5;341(6141):39–40.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Chen Y, Dorn GW 2nd. PINK1-phosphorylated mitofusin 2 is a Parkin receptor for culling damaged mitochondria. Science. 2013 Apr 26;340(6131):471–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Rhode SC, Pawlowski M, Tollrian R. The impact of ultraviolet radiation on the vertical distribution of zooplankton of the genus Daphnia. Nature. 2001 Jul 5;412(6842):69–72.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Adachi K, Kajino M, Zaizen Y, Igarashi Y. Emission of spherical cesium-bearing particles from an early stage of the Fukushima nuclear accident. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2554.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Sallaberry C. Geographical Information Retrieval in Textual Corpora. Hoboken, NJ USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
1.
Vavrus F. Teaching in Tension: International Pedagogies, National Policies, and Teachers’ Practices in Tanzania. Bartlett L, editor. Rotterdam: SensePublishers; 2013. XVIII, 202 p. (Pittsburgh Studies in Comparative and International Education; vol. 1).
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Kühl HP. Left ventricular function. In: Buck T, Franke A, Monaghan MJ, editors. Three-dimensional Echocardiography. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011. p. 55–72.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for American Family Physician.

Blog post
1.
Hale T. Rio 2016 Olympics: How Sick Could You Actually Get From Drinking The Water? [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/rio-2016-olympics-how-sick-could-you-actually-get-from-drinking-the-water/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Job Training Partnership Act: Racial and Gender Disparities in Services. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1991 Jul. Report No.: T-HRD-91-42.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Al-Kharafi HT. TF-CBT with the Pediatric Medical Population: A Modification [Doctoral dissertation]. [Malibu, CA]: Pepperdine University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Feeney K. QUICK BITE/Newark; The Best of Brazil. New York Times. 2006 Sep 10;14NJ19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleAmerican Family Physician
ISSN (print)0002-838X
ISSN (online)1532-0650
Scope

Other styles