How to format your references using the Physics and Chemistry of Minerals citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Physics and Chemistry of Minerals. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bishop DVM (2013) Cerebral asymmetry and language development: cause, correlate, or consequence? Science 340:1230531
A journal article with 2 authors
Bell G, Gonzalez A (2011) Adaptation and evolutionary rescue in metapopulations experiencing environmental deterioration. Science 332:1327–1330
A journal article with 3 authors
Santos MD, Dorogovtsev SN, Mendes JFF (2014) Biased imitation in coupled evolutionary games in interdependent networks. Sci Rep 4:4436
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Zhu P, Liu J, Bess J Jr, et al (2006) Distribution and three-dimensional structure of AIDS virus envelope spikes. Nature 441:847–852

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hanzo L, Keller T (2006) OFDM and MC-CDMA. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Jakhu RS (2014) Small Satellites and Their Regulation. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Brézillon P (2011) A Contextual Methodology for Modelling Real-Time Decision-Making Support. In: Burstein F, Brézillon P, Zaslavsky A (eds) Supporting Real Time Decision-Making: The Role of Context in Decision Support on the Move. Springer US, Boston, MA, pp 65–88

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Physics and Chemistry of Minerals.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J (2017) Scientists To Hunt For Planets In Our Nearest Star System With Funding For New Instrument. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2005) Amtrak: Management and Accountability Issues Contribute to Unprofitability of Food and Beverage Service. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Baghaei Lakeh A (2013) Approximate Analytical Solutions of a Generalized van der Pol Oscillator. Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Grynbaum MM (2017) Wall Street Journal’s Editor in Chief Admonishes Reporters Over Trump Coverage. New York Times B7

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bishop 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Bell and Gonzalez 2011; Bishop 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bell and Gonzalez 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Zhu et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titlePhysics and Chemistry of Minerals
AbbreviationPhys. Chem. Miner.
ISSN (print)0342-1791
ISSN (online)1432-2021
ScopeGeochemistry and Petrology
General Materials Science

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