How to format your references using the Earth Surface Dynamics Discussions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Earth Surface Dynamics Discussions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fung, I.: Atmospheric science. A hyperventilating biosphere, Science, 341, 1075–1076, 2013.
A journal article with 2 authors
Asimow, P. D. and Langmuir, C. H.: The importance of water to oceanic mantle melting regimes, Nature, 421, 815–820, 2003.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pollitz, F. F., Wicks, C., and Thatcher, W.: Mantle flow beneath a continental strike-slip fault: postseismic deformation after the 1999 Hector Mine earthquake, Science, 293, 1814–1818, 2001.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Matsuda, T., Bebenek, K., Masutani, C., Hanaoka, F., and Kunkel, T. A.: Low fidelity DNA synthesis by human DNA polymerase-eta, Nature, 404, 1011–1013, 2000.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gordon, M. J., Jr.: Total Quality Process Control for Injection Molding, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2010.
An edited book
Rahman, S., Street, T., and Tahiri, H. (Eds.): The Unity of Science in the Arabic Tradition: Science, Logic, Epistemology and their Interactions, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, XIII, 390 p pp., 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Bykovsky, V. K.: Data-Driven Modeling of Complex Systems, in: Unifying Themes in Complex Systems: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Complex Systems, edited by: Minai, A., Braha, D., and Bar-Yam, Y., Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 34–41, 2008.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Earth Surface Dynamics Discussions.

Blog post
You Can Watch Brown Bears Fish For Salmon In Alaska LIVE On These Free Cameras:, last access: 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Higher Education: Factors Lenders Consider in Making Lending Decisions for Private Education Loans, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2009.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kwon, Y.: Extreme value estimators: Their long memory feature and forecasting performances in the U.S. stock indexes, Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, Washington, DC, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Belson, K. and Pilon, M.: Hostility Lingers Over Wittenberg’s Handling of Marathon Cancellation, New York Times, 6th November, B15, 2012.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Fung, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Fung, 2013; Asimow and Langmuir, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Asimow and Langmuir, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Matsuda et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleEarth Surface Dynamics Discussions
AbbreviationEarth Surf. Dyn. Discuss.
ISSN (online)2196-6338

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