How to format your references using the Earth Surface Dynamics Discussions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Earth Surface Dynamics Discussions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bernstein, R.: Science by any means necessary, Science, 347, 686, 2015.
A journal article with 2 authors
Medzhitov, R. and Janeway, C. A., Jr: Decoding the patterns of self and nonself by the innate immune system, Science, 296, 298–300, 2002.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cuello, L. G., Cortes, D. M., and Perozo, E.: Molecular architecture of the KvAP voltage-dependent K+ channel in a lipid bilayer, Science, 306, 491–495, 2004.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Laskar, A., Singh, R., Ghose, S., Jayaraman, G., Kumar, P. B. S., and Adhikari, R.: Hydrodynamic instabilities provide a generic route to spontaneous biomimetic oscillations in chemomechanically active filaments, Sci. Rep., 3, 1964, 2013.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Memming, R.: Semiconductor Electrochemistry, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany, 2015.
An edited book
Brass, P.: Research Problems in Discrete Geometry, edited by: Moser, W. O. J. and Pach, J., Springer, New York, NY, XII, 500 p. 116 illus pp., 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
de Menezes, M. V., do Lago Pereira, S., and de Barros, L. N.: System Design Modification with Actions, in: Advances in Artificial Intelligence – SBIA 2010: 20th Brazilian Symposium on Artificial Intelligence, São Bernardo do Campo, Brazil, October 23-28, 2010. Proceedings, edited by: Rocha Costa, A. C. da, Vicari, R. M., and Tonidandel, F., Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 31–40, 2010.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Earth Surface Dynamics Discussions.

Blog post
We Now Have All The New Horizons Data From Pluto:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Satellite Control Systems: Opportunity for DOD to Implement Space Policy and Integrate Capabilities, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Porter, L. A.: Defense Support of Civilian Authorities (DSCA): What emergency managers need to know, Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, Washington, DC, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin, J.: HBO’s ‘Veep’ to End In 2018 After 7 Seasons, New York Times, 7th September, C3, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bernstein, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Bernstein, 2015; Medzhitov and Janeway, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Medzhitov and Janeway, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Laskar et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleEarth Surface Dynamics Discussions
AbbreviationEarth Surf. Dyn. Discuss.
ISSN (online)2196-6338

Other styles