How to format your references using the Earth Surface Dynamics Discussions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Earth Surface Dynamics Discussions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Henderson, G. M.: Climate. Caving in to new chronologies, Science, 313, 620–622, 2006.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wu, X. and Ruvkun, G.: Cancer. Germ cell genes and cancer, Science, 330, 1761–1762, 2010.
A journal article with 3 authors
Powell, A., Shennan, S., and Thomas, M. G.: Late Pleistocene demography and the appearance of modern human behavior, Science, 324, 1298–1301, 2009.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Liquori, C. L., Ricker, K., Moseley, M. L., Jacobsen, J. F., Kress, W., Naylor, S. L., Day, J. W., and Ranum, L. P.: Myotonic dystrophy type 2 caused by a CCTG expansion in intron 1 of ZNF9, Science, 293, 864–867, 2001.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
de Almeida, J. P. M. and Maunder, E. A. W.: Equilibrium Finite Element Formulations, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2017.
An edited book
Shafferman, A., Ordentlich, A., and Velan, B. (Eds.): The Challenge of Highly Pathogenic Microorganisms: Mechanisms of Virulence and Novel Medical Countermeasures, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, XVIII, 314 p pp., 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Crowder, J. A. and Friess, S.: Measuring Success in an Agile World: Agile EVMS, in: Agile Project Management: Managing for Success, edited by: Friess, S., Springer International Publishing, Cham, 49–63, 2015.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Earth Surface Dynamics Discussions.

Blog post
What Does The Future Hold For The Polar Bear?, last access: 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Surface Infrastructure: Costs, Financing and Schedules for Large-Dollar Transportation Projects, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nguyen, J. R.: Staging Vietnamese America: Music and the performance of Vietnamese American identities, Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, B.: A Revenge Tragedy Colored by Brecht, New York Times, 12th September, C5, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Henderson, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Henderson, 2006; Wu and Ruvkun, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wu and Ruvkun, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Liquori et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleEarth Surface Dynamics Discussions
AbbreviationEarth Surf. Dyn. Discuss.
ISSN (online)2196-6338

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