How to format your references using the Earth Surface Dynamics Discussions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Earth Surface Dynamics Discussions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kaiser, J.: ECOLOGY: California Algae May Be Feared European Species, Science, 289(5477), 222b–3b, 2000.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pimm, S. L. and van Aarde, R. J.: African elephants and contraception, Nature, 411(6839), 766, 2001.
A journal article with 3 authors
Van Horn, R. C., Watts, H. E. and Holekamp, K. E.: Do female hyaenas choose mates based on tenure?, Nature, 454(7201), E1; discussion E2, 2008.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Martin, A., Troadec, C., Boualem, A., Rajab, M., Fernandez, R., Morin, H., Pitrat, M., Dogimont, C. and Bendahmane, A.: A transposon-induced epigenetic change leads to sex determination in melon, Nature, 461(7267), 1135–1138, 2009.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chu, P. P.: FPGA Prototyping by Verilog Examples, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ., 2008.
An edited book
Drossopoulou, S., Ed.: Programming Languages and Systems: 17th European Symposium on Programming, ESOP 2008, Held as Part of the Joint European Conferences on Theory and Practice of Software, ETAPS 2008, Budapest, Hungary, March 29-April 6, 2008. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg., 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Müller, I., Han, J., Schneider, J.-G. and Versteeg, S.: A Conceptual Framework for Unified and Comprehensive SOA Management, in Service-Oriented Computing – ICSOC 2008 Workshops: ICSOC 2008 International Workshops, Sydney, Australia, December 1st, 2008, Revised Selected Papers, edited by G. Feuerlicht and W. Lamersdorf, pp. 28–40, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg., 2009.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Earth Surface Dynamics Discussions.

Blog post
Davis, J.: Humans Have Destroyed A Tenth Of The Planet’s Wilderness In Just 25 Years, IFLScience [online] Available from: (Accessed 30 October 2018), 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Public Education: Title I Services Provided to Students With Limited English Proficiency, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC., 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Grace-McCaskey, C. A.: Fishermen, Politics, and Participation: An Ethnographic Examination of Commercial Fisheries Management in St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands, Doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL., 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J.: With Colon Free and Pitchers Hurt, Mets’ Future Could Lie in Their Past, New York Times, 30th June, B10, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kaiser, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Kaiser, 2000; Pimm and van Aarde, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Pimm and van Aarde, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Martin et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleEarth Surface Dynamics Discussions
AbbreviationEarth Surf. Dyn. Discuss.
ISSN (online)2196-6338

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