How to format your references using the Physics and Chemistry of Liquids citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Physics and Chemistry of Liquids. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dholakia K. Journal club. An optical physicist sees beyond fluorescent labels. Nature. 2009;457:1061.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kokko H, López-Sepulcre A. From individual dispersal to species ranges: perspectives for a changing world. Science. 2006;313:789–791.
A journal article with 3 authors
Goldner A, Herold N, Huber M. Antarctic glaciation caused ocean circulation changes at the Eocene-Oligocene transition. Nature. 2014;511:574–577.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Guan Y-Q, Zheng Z, Huang Z, et al. Powerful inner/outer controlled multi-target magnetic nanoparticle drug carrier prepared by liquid photo-immobilization. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4990.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Boutillier S, Carré D, Levratto N. Entrepreneurial Ecosystems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
Goetz T, Jaritz G, Oser F, editors. Pains and Gains of International Mobility in Teacher Education. Rotterdam: SensePublishers; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Karniel A, Reich Y. DSM Enhancements. In: Reich Y, editor. Managing the Dynamics of New Product Development Processes: A New Product Lifecycle Management Paradigm. London: Springer; 2011. p. 51–61.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Physics and Chemistry of Liquids.

Blog post
Andrew E. U.S. And China Join Forces To Build A Bullet Train Between LA And Las Vegas. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Motor Vehicle Safety: Selected Rulemakings by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1989. Report No.: RCED-89-11FS. .

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bell KD. Fatherhood connected: A curriculum development project for adolescent fathers in the juvenile justice system [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K. The Bus Doesn’t Stop Here Anymore. New York Times. 2002 Dec 8;147.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePhysics and Chemistry of Liquids
AbbreviationPhys. Chem. Liquids
ISSN (print)0031-9104
ISSN (online)1029-0451
ScopePhysical and Theoretical Chemistry
Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Materials Chemistry
Condensed Matter Physics

Other styles