How to format your references using the Physical Review Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Physical Review Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
A. Burrows, Supernova Explosions in the Universe, Nature 403, 727 (2000).
A journal article with 2 authors
A. Mulch and C. P. Chamberlain, Earth Science: The Rise and Growth of Tibet, Nature 439, 670 (2006).
A journal article with 3 authors
M. M. Babu, R. W. Kriwacki, and R. V. Pappu, Structural Biology. Versatility from Protein Disorder, Science 337, 1460 (2012).
A journal article with 4 or more authors
J. F. Presley, T. H. Ward, A. C. Pfeifer, E. D. Siggia, R. D. Phair, and J. Lippincott-Schwartz, Dissection of COPI and Arf1 Dynamics in Vivo and Role in Golgi Membrane Transport, Nature 417, 187 (2002).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
D. R. Garrison and N. D. Vaughan, Blended Learning in Higher Education (Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, CA, USA, 2007).
An edited book
T.-H. Kim, J. Ma, W.-C. Fang, B. Park, B.-H. Kang, and D. Ślęzak, editors , U- and E-Service, Science and Technology: International Conference UNESST 2010, Held as Part of the Future Generation Information Technology Conference, FGIT 2010, Jeju Island, Korea, December 13-15, 2010. Proceedings, Vol. 124 (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2010).
A chapter in an edited book
V. Bruni, P. Ferrara, and D. Vitulano, Color Scratches Removal Using Human Perception, in Image Analysis and Recognition: 5th International Conference, ICIAR 2008, Póvoa de Varzim, Portugal, June 25-27, 2008. Proceedings, edited by A. Campilho and M. Kamel (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2008), pp. 33–42.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Physical Review Letters.

Blog post
E. Andrew, 10 Parasites That Could Be Making Your Body Their Home,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Medicaid: Questionable Practices Boost Federal Payments for School-Based Services, No. T-HEHS-99-148, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
D. H. Edwards, Why Do They Get High?: An Examination of Social Bond Theory and Substance Use in College, Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Hodgman, Bonus Advice From Judge John Hodgman, New York Times MM18 (2017).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference  [1].
This sentence cites two references  [1,2].
This sentence cites four references  [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePhysical Review Letters
AbbreviationPhys. Rev. Lett.
ISSN (print)0031-9007
ISSN (online)1079-7114
ScopeGeneral Physics and Astronomy

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