How to format your references using the Physical Review E citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Physical Review E. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
R. West, Chemistry. Japan Bats a Triple, Science 305, 1724 (2004).
A journal article with 2 authors
T. D. Wheeler and A. D. Stroock, The Transpiration of Water at Negative Pressures in a Synthetic Tree, Nature 455, 208 (2008).
A journal article with 3 authors
C. Zhang, Y.-P. Yang, and Y.-W. Duan, Pollen Sensitivity to Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) Suggests Floral Structure Evolution in Alpine Plants, Sci. Rep. 4, 4520 (2014).
A journal article with 4 or more authors
A. Girard, R. Sachidanandam, G. J. Hannon, and M. A. Carmell, A Germline-Specific Class of Small RNAs Binds Mammalian Piwi Proteins, Nature 442, 199 (2006).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
M. S. Ben Mahmoud, C. Guerber, N. Larrieu, A. Pirovano, and J. Radzik, Aeronautical Air-Ground Data Link Communications (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2014).
An edited book
J. A. Daniels, Preventing Lethal School Violence (Springer, New York, NY, 2011).
A chapter in an edited book
N. Siddiqui, H. G. Töre, and V. Yaghmai, Post-Locoregional Therapy Imaging of the Liver, in Cross-Sectional Imaging of the Abdomen and Pelvis: A Practical Algorithmic Approach, edited by K. M. Elsayes (Springer, New York, NY, 2015), pp. 97–109.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Physical Review E.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Human Brain Grown In A Lab Could Be Most Complete Yet,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Determination of Costs Relating to the Environmental Education Act, No. HRD-78-37, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1978.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
S. M. Graham, Conditions That Prompt the Migrant Worker Population to Access Pre-Hospital Emergency Care in Place of Health Centers in Qatar, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
P. Baker and M. D. Shear, Trump Stirs a New Question: Are There Tapes?, New York Times A1 (2017).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference  [1].
This sentence cites two references  [1,2].
This sentence cites four references  [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePhysical Review E
AbbreviationPhys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.
ISSN (print)1539-3755
ISSN (online)1550-2376
ScopeStatistics and Probability
Condensed Matter Physics
Statistical and Nonlinear Physics

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