How to format your references using the Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dajani, Rana. 2015. “Why I Teach Evolution to Muslim Students.” Nature 520 (7548): 409.
A journal article with 2 authors
Li, Nuo, and James J. DiCarlo. 2008. “Unsupervised Natural Experience Rapidly Alters Invariant Object Representation in Visual Cortex.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 321 (5895): 1502–1507.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gutiérrez, Nicolás L., Ray Hilborn, and Omar Defeo. 2011. “Leadership, Social Capital and Incentives Promote Successful Fisheries.” Nature 470 (7334): 386–389.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Xia, Ma, Zhang Jing, Han Zhi-yu, Yang Yu, Hao Yan-li, Xu Chang-tao, Xu Rui-fang, Zhang Bing-song, and Dong Bao-wei. 2014. “Research of Dose-Effect Relationship Parameters of Percutaneous Microwave Ablation for Uterine Leiomyomas--a Quantitative Study.” Scientific Reports 4 (September): 6469.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rowlinson, Michael. 2016. A Practical Guide to the NEC3 Engineering and Construction Contract. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Ali Babar, M., Matias Vierimaa, and Markku Oivo, eds. 2010. Product-Focused Software Process Improvement: 11th International Conference, PROFES 2010, Limerick, Ireland, June 21-23, 2010. Proceedings. Vol. 6156. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Farkas, József, and Károly Jármai. 2013. “Tubular Trusses.” In Optimum Design of Steel Structures, edited by Károly Jármai, 61–107. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy.

Blog post
Andrews, Robin. 2015. “Ancient Supermassive Black Hole Ejects Major Flare.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2005. NASA: More Knowledge Needed to Determine Best Alternatives to Provide Space Station Logistics Support. GAO-05-488. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Piper, Mark Harris. 2017. “A Study of the Effectiveness of Alternative Schools through an Examination of Graduation Rates, School Climate, Student Motivation, and Academic Rigor.” Doctoral dissertation, St. Charles, MO: Lindenwood University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Becker, J. O., Matt Apuzzo, and Adam Goldman. 2017. “Trump Team Met With Lawyer Tied to Kremlin Amid ’16 Race.” New York Times, July 8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dajani 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Dajani 2015; Li and DiCarlo 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Li and DiCarlo 2008)
  • Three authors: (Gutiérrez, Hilborn, and Defeo 2011)
  • 4 or more authors: (Xia et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titlePhysical Education and Sport Pedagogy
AbbreviationPhys. Educ. Sport Pedagogy
ISSN (print)1740-8989
ISSN (online)1742-5786
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine
Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

Other styles