How to format your references using the Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Ciesla FJ. Outward transport of high-temperature materials around the midplane of the solar nebula. Science. 2007;318:613–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Rubio V, Deng XW. Plant science. Standing on the shoulders of GIGANTEA. Science. 2007;318:206–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Powell A, Shennan S, Thomas MG. Late Pleistocene demography and the appearance of modern human behavior. Science. 2009;324:1298–301.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Peña M, Bonatti LL, Nespor M, Mehler J. Signal-driven computations in speech processing. Science. 2002;298:604–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Peterson RL, Murtha FF. MarketPsych. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
1. Zimmermann C, Dean RG, Penchev V, Verhagen HJ, editors. Environmentally Friendly Coastal Protection: Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Environmentally Friendly Coastal Protection Structures Varna, Bulgaria 25–27 May 2004. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Hood-Daniel P, Kelly JF. Cutting the Parts II. In: Kelly JF, editor. Printing in Plastic: Build Your Own 3D Printer. Berkeley, CA: Apress; 2011. p. 49–67.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine.

Blog post
1. Andrews R. Sex Lives Of Australian “Demon Ducks” Determined From Treasure Trove Of Fossils. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Motor Carrier Academy. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994 Nov. Report No.: RCED-95-43R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Parisi J. Correlation of Conditional Admittance and Student Achievement in an Undergraduate Higher Education Setting [Doctoral dissertation]. [ St. Charles, MO]: Lindenwood University; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
1. Gustines GG. In One Sad Day, an Old World Artisan Confronts a New World. New York Times. 2010 Apr 26;C4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePhilosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine
AbbreviationPhilos. Ethics Humanit. Med.
ISSN (online)1747-5341
ScopeHistory and Philosophy of Science
General Medicine
Health Policy
Issues, ethics and legal aspects

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