How to format your references using the Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Gottfried K. Inferring the statistical interpretation of quantum mechanics from the classical limit. Nature. 2000;405:533–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Heilbron JL, Bynum WF. 1904 and all that. Nature. 2003;426:761–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Bushey D, Tononi G, Cirelli C. Sleep and synaptic homeostasis: structural evidence in Drosophila. Science. 2011;332:1576–81.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Hill CA, Fox AN, Pitts RJ, Kent LB, Tan PL, Chrystal MA, et al. G protein-coupled receptors in Anopheles gambiae. Science. 2002;298:176–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Pétrowski A, Ben-Hamida S. Evolutionary Algorithms. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2017.
An edited book
1. Fensel D. Semantic Web Services. Facca FM, Simperl E, Toma I, editors. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Fadda L, Carlesimo GA. Valutazione neuropsicologica nella malattia di Parkinson. In: Caltagirone C, editor. Malattia di Parkinson e parkinsonismi: La prospettiva delle neuroscienze cognitive. Milano: Springer; 2009. p. 81–97.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine.

Blog post
1. Fang J. Meet The Wakatobi Flowerpecker, A Newly Discovered Bird From Indonesia. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Computers: Information on the Patent and Trademark Office Automation Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1985 Dec. Report No.: IMTEC-86-4FS.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Mcfarlane N. Information power efficiency tradeoffs in mixed signal CMOS circuits [Doctoral dissertation]. [College Park, MD]: University of Maryland, College Park; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Duerden J. Qatar’s World Cup Résumé: Zero Games; 2022 Host. New York Times. 2017 Apr 1;SP3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePhilosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine
AbbreviationPhilos. Ethics Humanit. Med.
ISSN (online)1747-5341
ScopeHistory and Philosophy of Science
General Medicine
Health Policy
Issues, ethics and legal aspects

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