How to format your references using the Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Been MD. Molecular biology. Versatility of self-cleaving ribozymes. Science. 2006;313:1745–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Tsubouchi T, Roeder GS. A synaptonemal complex protein promotes homology-independent centromere coupling. Science. 2005;308:870–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Kim C, Xuong N-H, Taylor SS. Crystal structure of a complex between the catalytic and regulatory (RIalpha) subunits of PKA. Science. 2005;307:690–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Schneider ME, Belyantseva IA, Azevedo RB, Kachar B. Rapid renewal of auditory hair bundles. Nature. 2002;418:837–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Böhmer E. Dentistry in Rabbits and Rodents. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2015.
An edited book
1. LePage BA, Williams CJ, Yang H, editors. The Geobiology and Ecology of Metasequoia. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Stathi S, Roscini C. Identity and Acculturation Processes in Multicultural Societies. In: McKeown S, Haji R, Ferguson N, editors. Understanding Peace and Conflict Through Social Identity Theory: Contemporary Global Perspectives. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 55–69.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine.

Blog post
1. Luntz S. Diverse Ecosystems Control Infectious Diseases [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/diverse-ecosystems-control-infectious-diseases/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Aviation Security: TSA Is Enhancing Its Oversight of Air Carrier Efforts to Identify Passengers on the No Fly and Selectee Lists, but Expects Ultimate Solution to Be Implementation of Secure Flight. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2008 Sep. Report No.: GAO-08-992.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Duan C. Dynamic Analysis of Dry Friction Path in a Torsional System [Doctoral dissertation]. [Columbus, OH]: Ohio State University; 2004.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Hollander S. Running for Herself and in Memory. New York Times. 2002 Nov 4;F2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePhilosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine
AbbreviationPhilos. Ethics Humanit. Med.
ISSN (online)1747-5341
ScopeHistory and Philosophy of Science
General Medicine
Health Policy
Issues, ethics and legal aspects

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