How to format your references using the Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Piwowar H. Altmetrics: Value all research products. Nature. 2013;493:159.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Der BS, Kuhlman B. Biochemistry. From computational design to a protein that binds. Science. 2011;332:801–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Alkire MT, Hudetz AG, Tononi G. Consciousness and anesthesia. Science. 2008;322:876–80.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Deng Z, Jiang Y, Ma Z, Wang W, Jia H, Zhou J, et al. A novel wavelength-adjusting method in InGaN-based light-emitting diodes. Sci Rep. 2013;3:3389.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Zanotto ED. Crystals in Glass. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
1. Carlier M-F, editor. Actin-based Motility: Cellular, Molecular and Physical Aspects. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Kołodziej J, Khan SU, Wang L, Chen D, Zomaya AY. Energy and Security Awareness in Evolutionary-Driven Grid Scheduling. In: Khan SU, Kołodziej J, Li J, Zomaya AY, editors. Evolutionary Based Solutions for Green Computing. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013. p. 95–138.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine.

Blog post
1. Taub B. New Study Reveals The History Of Cats’ Global Empire [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/new-study-reveals-history-cats-global-empire/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Commercial Aviation: Programs and Options for Providing Air Service to Small Communities. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2007 Apr. Report No.: GAO-07-793T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Jenkins AK. Satisfaction and organizational commitment of civilian engineers and scientists in United States naval acquisition [Doctoral dissertation]. [Phoenix, AZ]: University of Phoenix; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Zecher LK. The Path to Publishing. New York Times. 2013 Jan 13;BU8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePhilosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine
AbbreviationPhilos. Ethics Humanit. Med.
ISSN (online)1747-5341
ScopeHistory and Philosophy of Science
General Medicine
Health Policy
Issues, ethics and legal aspects

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