How to format your references using the Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Tilgner E. Mantophasmatodea: a new insect order? Science. 2002;297:731; discussion 731.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Laskar J, Gastineau M. Existence of collisional trajectories of Mercury, Mars and Venus with the Earth. Nature. 2009;459:817–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Amselem E, Sadiq M, Bourennane M. Experimental bound entanglement through a Pauli channel. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1966.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Rasoloniaina A, Huet V, Nguyên TKN, Le Cren E, Mortier M, Michely L, et al. Controling the coupling properties of active ultrahigh-Q WGM microcavities from undercoupling to selective amplification. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4023.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Hessel V, Löwe H, Müller A, Kolb G. Chemical Micro Process Engineering. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2005.
An edited book
1. Loiseau JJ, Michiels W, Niculescu S-I, Sipahi R, editors. Topics in Time Delay Systems: Analysis, Algorithms and Control. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Nogueira FTS. Tomato Epigenetics: Deciphering the “Beyond” Genetic Information in a Vegetable Fleshy-Fruited Crop. In: De la Peña C, Casas-Mollano JA, editors. Epigenetics in Plants of Agronomic Importance: Fundamentals and Applications: Transcriptional Regulation and Chromatin Remodelling in Plants. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014. p. 71–89.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine.

Blog post
1. Davis J. Unsustainable Hunting Of Wild Mammals Is Driving Them To The Edge Of Extinction. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Airline Competition: Barriers to Entry Continue in Some Domestic Markets. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1998 Mar. Report No.: T-RCED-98-112.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Rodgers R. Phylogenomic Analysis of Fundulidae Using RNA-Sequencing Data [Doctoral dissertation]. [Edwardsville, IL]: Southern Illinois University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Greenhouse L. Vermont Campaign Limits Get Cool Reception at Court. New York Times. 2006 Mar 1;A14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePhilosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine
AbbreviationPhilos. Ethics Humanit. Med.
ISSN (online)1747-5341
ScopeHistory and Philosophy of Science
General Medicine
Health Policy
Issues, ethics and legal aspects

Other styles