How to format your references using the Philosophical Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Philosophical Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Barabási, A.-L. (2005). Sociology. Network theory--the emergence of the creative enterprise. Science (New York, N.Y.), 308(5722), 639–641.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rensberger, J. M., & Watabe, M. (2000). Fine structure of bone in dinosaurs, birds and mammals. Nature, 406(6796), 619–622.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wang, C., Potter, A. C., & Senthil, T. (2014). Classification of interacting electronic topological insulators in three dimensions. Science (New York, N.Y.), 343(6171), 629–631.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Di Paolo, G., Pellegrini, L., Letinic, K., Cestra, G., Zoncu, R., Voronov, S., et al. (2002). Recruitment and regulation of phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinase type 1 gamma by the FERM domain of talin. Nature, 420(6911), 85–89.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fong, A. C. M., & Hui, S. C. (2006). Multimedia Engineering. Chichester, England: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Baxley, T. P. (2014). (In)visible Presence: Feminist Counter-Narratives of Young Adult Literature by Women of Color. (G. H. Boston, Ed.) (Vol. 102). Rotterdam: SensePublishers.
A chapter in an edited book
Chia, G. L., & Chia, V. L. (2007). On the Choice Numbers of Some Complete Multipartite Graphs. In J. Akiyama, W. Y. C. Chen, M. Kano, X. Li, & Q. Yu (Eds.), Discrete Geometry, Combinatorics and Graph Theory: 7th China-Japan Conference, CJCDGCGT 2005, Tianjin, China, November 18-20, 2005, Xi’an, China, November 22-24, 2005, Revised Selected Papers (pp. 30–37). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Philosophical Studies.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2015, August 9). What’s The Fastest (Fictional) Spaceship In The Universe? IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2009). Teacher Quality: Sustained Coordination among Key Federal Education Programs Could Enhance State Efforts to Improve Teacher Quality (No. GAO-09-593). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gwaduri, E. (2009). A personal narrative: Struggles and experiences of acculturation as a Pakistani Shia Muslim while battling immigration (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, M. (2010, November 28). Check In /Check Out; MIAMI BEACH, FLA.: Soho Beach House. New York Times, p. TR4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Barabási 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Barabási 2005; Rensberger and Watabe 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rensberger and Watabe 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Di Paolo et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titlePhilosophical Studies
AbbreviationPhilos. Stud.
ISSN (print)0031-8116
ISSN (online)1573-0883

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