How to format your references using the Philosophical Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Philosophical Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ciochon, R. L. (2009). The mystery ape of Pleistocene Asia. Nature, 459(7249), 910–911.
A journal article with 2 authors
Valadkhan, S., & Manley, J. L. (2001). Splicing-related catalysis by protein-free snRNAs. Nature, 413(6857), 701–707.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wu, L.-A., Walther, P., & Lidar, D. A. (2013). No-go theorem for passive single-rail linear optical quantum computing. Scientific reports, 3, 1394.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Damodaram, K. J. P., Kempraj, V., Aurade, R. M., Rajasekhar, S. B., Venkataramanappa, R. K., Nandagopal, B., & Verghese, A. (2014). Centuries of domestication has not impaired oviposition site-selection function in the silkmoth, Bombyx mori. Scientific reports, 4, 7472.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mackenzie, A. F. D. (2013). Places of Possibility. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
An edited book
James, H. S., Jr. (Ed.). (2013). The Ethics and Economics of Agrifood Competition (Vol. 20). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Shimizu, Y., & Williams, G. (2013). Studying Learners in Intercultural Contexts. In M. A. (ken) Clements, A. J. Bishop, C. Keitel, J. Kilpatrick, & F. K. S. Leung (Eds.), Third International Handbook of Mathematics Education (pp. 145–167). New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Philosophical Studies.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2017, May 19). Pioneering “Mini-Pancreas” Nullifies Woman’s Type 1 Diabetes. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2015). Space Acquisitions: GAO Assessment of DOD Responsive Launch Report (No. GAO-16-156R). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Agbi, E. S. (2010). Shadow economy and the related issues of tax evasion: A comparative analysis among Canadian workers (Doctoral dissertation). Northcentral University, Scottsdale, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Newman, A. (2015, April 10). Solemn Vows Were Routine for Woman in Fraud Case. New York Times, p. A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ciochon 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Ciochon 2009; Valadkhan and Manley 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Valadkhan and Manley 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Damodaram et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titlePhilosophical Studies
AbbreviationPhilos. Stud.
ISSN (print)0031-8116
ISSN (online)1573-0883

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