How to format your references using the Philosophical Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Philosophical Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Crowley, T. J. (2002). Paleoclimate. Cycles, cycles everywhere. Science (New York, N.Y.), 295(5559), 1473–1474.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hol, F. J. H., & Dekker, C. (2014). Zooming in to see the bigger picture: microfluidic and nanofabrication tools to study bacteria. Science (New York, N.Y.), 346(6208), 1251821.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cymes, G. D., Ni, Y., & Grosman, C. (2005). Probing ion-channel pores one proton at a time. Nature, 438(7070), 975–980.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Wehrens, X. H. T., Lehnart, S. E., Reiken, S. R., Deng, S.-X., Vest, J. A., Cervantes, D., et al. (2004). Protection from cardiac arrhythmia through ryanodine receptor-stabilizing protein calstabin2. Science (New York, N.Y.), 304(5668), 292–296.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Yang, H., & Lee, E. K. (2016). Healthcare Analytics: From Data to Knowledge to Healthcare Improvement. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Hamm, I., Seitz, H., & Werding, M. (Eds.). (2008). Demographic Change in Germany: The Economic and Fiscal Consequences. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Kim, Y. J., Yang, J. Y., Kim, Y. M., Lee, J., & Choi, C. (2016). Modeling Behavior of Mobile Application Using Discrete Event System Formalism. In S. Y. Ohn & S. D. Chi (Eds.), Model Design and Simulation Analysis: 15th International Conference, AsiaSim 2015, Jeju, Korea, November 4-7, 2015, Revised Selected Papers (pp. 40–48). Singapore: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Philosophical Studies.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2016, December 8). NASA Spots Giant Hole In The Sun - But What Does That Actually Mean? IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1996). Managed Care Initiatives (No. HEHS-96-153R). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Altiparmak, F. (2008). Online Management and Mining of Heteregenous and Dynamic Time Series (Doctoral dissertation). Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. (2001, June 26). FREELANCERS WIN IN COPYRIGHT CASE. New York Times, p. A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Crowley 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Crowley 2002; Hol and Dekker 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hol and Dekker 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Wehrens et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titlePhilosophical Studies
AbbreviationPhilos. Stud.
ISSN (print)0031-8116
ISSN (online)1573-0883

Other styles