How to format your references using the Philosophical Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Philosophical Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Aubret, F. (2013). Heart rates increase after hatching in two species of Natricine snakes. Scientific reports, 3, 3384.
A journal article with 2 authors
Clark, P. U., & Mix, A. C. (2000). Ice sheets by volume. Nature, 406(6797), 689–690.
A journal article with 3 authors
Afek, I., Ambar, O., & Silberberg, Y. (2010). High-NOON states by mixing quantum and classical light. Science (New York, N.Y.), 328(5980), 879–881.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Flo, T. H., Smith, K. D., Sato, S., Rodriguez, D. J., Holmes, M. A., Strong, R. K., et al. (2004). Lipocalin 2 mediates an innate immune response to bacterial infection by sequestrating iron. Nature, 432(7019), 917–921.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wen, S., & Huang, P. (2017). Principles of Tribology. Singapore: John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd.
An edited book
Presutti, L., & Mattioli, F. (Eds.). (2016). Endoscopic Surgery of the Lacrimal Drainage System (1st ed. 2016.). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Balint, T., & Allbeck, J. M. (2014). Is That How Everyone Really Feels? Emotional Contagion with Masking for Virtual Crowds. In T. Bickmore, S. Marsella, & C. Sidner (Eds.), Intelligent Virtual Agents: 14th International Conference, IVA 2014, Boston, MA, USA, August 27-29, 2014. Proceedings (pp. 26–35). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Philosophical Studies.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2014, November 5). Man Claims He’s Going To Put On A Snake-Proof Suit And Let An Anaconda Swallow Him On Camera. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1995). College Savings: Information on State Tuition Prepayment Programs (No. HEHS-95-131). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ren, W. (2013). The Portrayal of Risk-taking Behaviors in Traffic on the Prime-time Television Series (Doctoral dissertation). Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Stewart, J. B. (2016, October 20). More College Rankings, More Confusing Results. New York Times, p. B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Aubret 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Aubret 2013; Clark and Mix 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Clark and Mix 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Flo et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titlePhilosophical Studies
AbbreviationPhilos. Stud.
ISSN (print)0031-8116
ISSN (online)1573-0883

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