How to format your references using the Philosophical Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Philosophical Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hanson, B. (2009). Light on the origin of man. Ardipithecus ramidus. Introduction. Science (New York, N.Y.), 326(5949), 60–61.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rogulja, D., & Young, M. W. (2012). Control of sleep by cyclin A and its regulator. Science (New York, N.Y.), 335(6076), 1617–1621.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nicoll, R. A., Tomita, S., & Bredt, D. S. (2006). Auxiliary subunits assist AMPA-type glutamate receptors. Science (New York, N.Y.), 311(5765), 1253–1256.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Majumder, M., Chopra, N., Andrews, R., & Hinds, B. J. (2005). Nanoscale hydrodynamics: enhanced flow in carbon nanotubes. Nature, 438(7064), 44.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Guzik, A. (2013). Essentials for Occupational Health Nursing. West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
lisahunter. (2013). Participatory Activist Research in the Globalised World: Social Change Through the Cultural Professions. (E. Emerald & G. Martin, Eds.) (Vol. 26). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Dye, H. A., Kauffman, L. H., & Manturov, V. O. (2011). On Two Categorifications of the Arrow Polynomial for Virtual Knots. In M. Banagl & D. Vogel (Eds.), The Mathematics of Knots: Theory and Application (pp. 95–124). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Philosophical Studies.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2014, May 16). Stick Bug Study Suggests Evolution is Predictable. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1991). Federal Research: Concerns About Developing and Producing Magnets for the Superconducting Super Collider (No. T-RCED-91-51). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Messian, N. M. (2012). The Spiral of Time: A Path to the Soul—Jewish Mystical and Depth Psychological Perspectives (Doctoral dissertation). Pacifica Graduate Institute, Carpinteria, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wogan, J. (2016, November 4). Beds and a Banana. New York Times, p. M236.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hanson 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Hanson 2009; Rogulja and Young 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rogulja and Young 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Majumder et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titlePhilosophical Studies
AbbreviationPhilos. Stud.
ISSN (print)0031-8116
ISSN (online)1573-0883

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