How to format your references using the Philosophical Explorations citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Philosophical Explorations. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Höfte, H. 2001. “Plant Biology. A Baroque Residue in Red Wine.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 294 (5543): 795–797.
A journal article with 2 authors
Curry, Ruth, and Cecilie Mauritzen. 2005. “Dilution of the Northern North Atlantic Ocean in Recent Decades.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 308 (5729): 1772–1774.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wei, Zong-Wen, Bing-Hong Wang, and Xiao-Pu Han. 2013. “Renormalization and Small-World Model of Fractal Quantum Repeater Networks.” Scientific Reports 3 (February): 1222.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Rohwer, Timm, Stefan Hellmann, Martin Wiesenmayer, Christian Sohrt, Ankatrin Stange, Bartosz Slomski, Adra Carr, et al. 2011. “Collapse of Long-Range Charge Order Tracked by Time-Resolved Photoemission at High Momenta.” Nature 471 (7339): 490–493.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Scheller-Sheridan, Carmen. 2011. Basic Guide to Dental Instruments. West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Jin, David, and Sally Lin, eds. 2012. Advances in Mechanical and Electronic Engineering: Volume 2. Vol. 177. Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Choi, B. I., and J. M. Lee. 2013. “Preoperative Imaging.” In Hilar Cholangiocarcinoma, edited by W. Y. Lau, 53–64. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Philosophical Explorations.

Blog post
Luntz, Stephen. 2015. “Love Hormone Brings Marmosets Together.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2004. Space Shuttle: Further Improvements Needed in NASA’s Modernization Efforts. GAO-04-203. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hamilton, Scott Murphy. 2015. “An Investigation of the Mass Balance of Oil and Gas Produced Versus Estimated Reserves Remaining within the A.W.P. Field, McMullen County, Texas.” Doctoral dissertation, Lafayette, LA: University of Louisiana.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Creswell, Julie, and George Gene Gustines. 2014. “A High-End Tussle.” New York Times, June 14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Höfte 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Höfte 2001; Curry and Mauritzen 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Curry and Mauritzen 2005)
  • Three authors: (Wei, Wang, and Han 2013)
  • 4 or more authors: (Rohwer et al. 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titlePhilosophical Explorations
AbbreviationPhilos. Explor.
ISSN (print)1386-9795
ISSN (online)1741-5918

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