How to format your references using the Philosophical Explorations citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Philosophical Explorations. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cattaneo, Andrea. 2015. “Astrophysics: The Slow Death of Red Galaxies.” Nature 521 (7551): 164–165.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tao, Franklin Feng, and Miquel Salmeron. 2011. “In Situ Studies of Chemistry and Structure of Materials in Reactive Environments.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 331 (6014): 171–174.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jones, M. H., D. Bewsher, and D. S. Brown. 2013. “Imaging of a Circumsolar Dust Ring near the Orbit of Venus.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 342 (6161): 960–963.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Kaaret, Philip, Stephane Corbel, Andrea H. Prestwich, and Andreas Zezas. 2003. “Radio Emission from an Ultraluminous X-Ray Source.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 299 (5605): 365–367.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Al-Shuhail, Abdullatif A., Saleh A. Al-Dossary, and Wail A. Mousa. 2017. Seismic Data Interpretation Using Digital Image Processing. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Masurel, Enno, Vinnie Jauhari, Chihiro Watanabe, and Marina Geenhuizen, eds. 2009. Technological Innovation Across Nations: Applied Studies of Coevolutionary Development. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Duong, Trong Hai, Ngoc Thanh Nguyen, Adrianna Kozierkiewicz-Hetmańska, and Geun Sik Jo. 2011. “Fuzzy Ontology Integration Using Consensus to Solve Conflicts on Concept Level.” In New Challenges for Intelligent Information and Database Systems, edited by Ngoc Thanh Nguyen, Bogdan Trawiński, and Jason J. Jung, 33–42. Studies in Computational Intelligence. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Philosophical Explorations.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, Jonathan. 2015. “Core Of Saturn’s Moon Enceladus May Be Similar To Primitive Meteorites.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2016. Highlights of a Forum: Data and Analytics Innovation: Emerging Opportunities and Challenges. GAO-16-659SP. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Green, James T. 2010. “The Relationship between Technology Support and Extent of Technology Integration into College-Level Foreign Language Curricula.” Doctoral dissertation, Tampa, FL: University of South Florida.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodara, Susan. 2015. “A Master of Metallurgy.” New York Times, February 1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cattaneo 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Cattaneo 2015; Tao and Salmeron 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Tao and Salmeron 2011)
  • Three authors: (Jones, Bewsher, and Brown 2013)
  • 4 or more authors: (Kaaret et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titlePhilosophical Explorations
AbbreviationPhilos. Explor.
ISSN (print)1386-9795
ISSN (online)1741-5918

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