How to format your references using the Philosophical Explorations citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Philosophical Explorations. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Evans, James A. 2013. “Computer Science. Future Science.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 342 (6154): 44–45.
A journal article with 2 authors
Beghein, Caroline, and Jeannot Trampert. 2003. “Robust Normal Mode Constraints on Inner-Core Anisotropy from Model Space Search.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 299 (5606): 552–555.
A journal article with 3 authors
Acar, Murat, Attila Becskei, and Alexander van Oudenaarden. 2005. “Enhancement of Cellular Memory by Reducing Stochastic Transitions.” Nature 435 (7039): 228–232.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Krajbich, Ian, Colin Camerer, John Ledyard, and Antonio Rangel. 2009. “Using Neural Measures of Economic Value to Solve the Public Goods Free-Rider Problem.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 326 (5952): 596–599.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Miller, Ronald E. 1999. Optimization. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Wannemacker, Stefan De, Sylke Vandercruysse, and Geraldine Clarebout, eds. 2012. Serious Games: The Challenge: ITEC/CIP and T 2011: Joint Conference of the Interdisciplinary Research Group on Technology, Education, and Communication, and the Scientific Network on Critical and Flexible Thinking Ghent, Belgium, October 19-21, 2011, Revised Selected Papers. Vol. 280. Communications in Computer and Information Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Duarte, Eduardo. 2012. “The Way of Lao-Tzu.” In Being and Learning: A Poetic Phenomenology of Education, edited by Eduardo M. Duarte, 45–67. Rotterdam: SensePublishers.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Philosophical Explorations.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “This Robot Will Let Kids In Hospital Explore Zoos Through Virtual Reality.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1983. Need To Improve Management of ACDA’s Automatic Data Processing and Operations Analysis Functions. NSIAD-83-66. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Crosby, Ada E. 2012. “A Phenomenological Heuristic Study of Psychosocial Factors That Contribute to African American Females’ HIV Seroconversion.” Doctoral dissertation, Phoenix, AZ: University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Nordland, Rod, and Safak Timur. 2016. “Turkey Fires 15,000 More Public Workers in Crackdown.” New York Times, November 22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Evans 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Evans 2013; Beghein and Trampert 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Beghein and Trampert 2003)
  • Three authors: (Acar, Becskei, and van Oudenaarden 2005)
  • 4 or more authors: (Krajbich et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titlePhilosophical Explorations
AbbreviationPhilos. Explor.
ISSN (print)1386-9795
ISSN (online)1741-5918

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