How to format your references using the Philosophical Explorations citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Philosophical Explorations. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
van der Oost, John. 2013. “Molecular Biology. New Tool for Genome Surgery.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 339 (6121): 768–770.
A journal article with 2 authors
Thibault, Pierre, and Andreas Menzel. 2013. “Reconstructing State Mixtures from Diffraction Measurements.” Nature 494 (7435): 68–71.
A journal article with 3 authors
West, G. B., J. H. Brown, and B. J. Enquist. 2001. “A General Model for Ontogenetic Growth.” Nature 413 (6856): 628–631.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Polizzotto, Matthew L., Benjamin D. Kocar, Shawn G. Benner, Michael Sampson, and Scott Fendorf. 2008. “Near-Surface Wetland Sediments as a Source of Arsenic Release to Ground Water in Asia.” Nature 454 (7203): 505–508.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schroeder, Knut, Trevor Thompson, Kathleen Frith, and David Pencheon. 2012. Sustainable Healthcare. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Bardos, Claude, and Andrei Fursikov, eds. 2008. Instability in Models Connected with Fluid Flows II. Vol. 7. International Mathematical Series. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Xavier, Gustavo Ribeiro, Maria Elizabeth Fernandes Correia, Adriana Maria de Aquino, Jerri Édson Zilli, and Norma Gouvêa Rumjanek. 2010. “The Structural and Functional Biodiversity of Soil: An Interdisciplinary Vision for Conservation Agriculture in Brazil.” In Soil Biology and Agriculture in the Tropics, edited by Patrice Dion, 65–80. Soil Biology. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Philosophical Explorations.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2013. “Flyover of Mars.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1974. Review of Estimate in Prime Contract N00019-71-C-0450 With Grumman Aerospace Corporation. 093132. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Stein, Elizabeth. 2017. “Oncology Summer Camp Attendance and Self-Esteem and Internalizing and Externalizing Behaviors Among Pediatric Cancer Patients and Siblings.” Doctoral dissertation, Malibu, CA: Pepperdine University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, Ben. 2017. “Marriage, That Cozy Battlefield.” New York Times, May 11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (van der Oost 2013).
This sentence cites two references (van der Oost 2013; Thibault and Menzel 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Thibault and Menzel 2013)
  • Three authors: (West, Brown, and Enquist 2001)
  • 4 or more authors: (Polizzotto et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titlePhilosophical Explorations
AbbreviationPhilos. Explor.
ISSN (print)1386-9795
ISSN (online)1741-5918

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