How to format your references using the Philosophical Explorations citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Philosophical Explorations. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Soden, B. J. 2000. “Atmospheric Physics. Enlightening Water Vapour.” Nature 406 (6793): 247–248.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gubin, Matthew M., and Robert D. Schreiber. 2015. “CANCER. The Odds of Immunotherapy Success.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 350 (6257): 158–159.
A journal article with 3 authors
Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria, Mann Sakbodin, and Zheng Wang. 2006. “Regenerative Adsorption and Removal of H2S from Hot Fuel Gas Streams by Rare Earth Oxides.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 312 (5779): 1508–1510.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Hofer, Sonja B., Thomas D. Mrsic-Flogel, Tobias Bonhoeffer, and Mark Hübener. 2009. “Experience Leaves a Lasting Structural Trace in Cortical Circuits.” Nature 457 (7227): 313–317.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Obayya, Salah. 2010. Computational Photonics. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Tan, Ying, Yuhui Shi, Fernando Buarque, Alexander Gelbukh, Swagatam Das, and Andries Engelbrecht, eds. 2015. Advances in Swarm and Computational Intelligence: 6th International Conference, ICSI 2015 Held in Conjunction with the Second BRICS Congress, CCI 2015, Beijing, June 25-28, 2015, Proceedings, Part II. Vol. 9141. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Goddard, Jerome. 2008. “Tick-Borne Diseases.” In Infectious Diseases and Arthropods, edited by Jerome Goddard, 81–129. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Philosophical Explorations.

Blog post
Fang, Janet. 2015. “How Earthworms Digest Dead Leaves Despite the Plant Toxins.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1978. Follow Up of Sanitary Conditions in Selected Food Industries. 089017. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Moua, Pangkong. 2009. “Differential Functions of the Kinesin-1 Tail in Drosophila Melanogaster Transport Processes.” Doctoral dissertation, Bloomington, IN: Indiana University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Zucchino, David, and Ben C. Solomon. 2017. “Newly Freed From ISIS but Stuck Without Water, Neighbors Find a Way.” New York Times, February 16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Soden 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Soden 2000; Gubin and Schreiber 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gubin and Schreiber 2015)
  • Three authors: (Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Sakbodin, and Wang 2006)
  • 4 or more authors: (Hofer et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titlePhilosophical Explorations
AbbreviationPhilos. Explor.
ISSN (print)1386-9795
ISSN (online)1741-5918

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