How to format your references using the Philosophical Explorations citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Philosophical Explorations. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Firestein, Gary S. 2007. “Biomedicine. Every Joint Has a Silver Lining.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 315 (5814): 952–953.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sonnenburg, Erica D., and Justin L. Sonnenburg. 2015. “Nutrition: A Personal Forecast.” Nature 528 (7583): 484–486.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sreekanth, Kandammathe Valiyaveedu, Antonio De Luca, and Giuseppe Strangi. 2013. “Experimental Demonstration of Surface and Bulk Plasmon Polaritons in Hypergratings.” Scientific Reports 3 (November): 3291.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Wang, Zhong, Kevin S. Smith, Mark Murphy, Obdulio Piloto, Tim C. P. Somervaille, and Michael L. Cleary. 2008. “Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 in MLL Leukaemia Maintenance and Targeted Therapy.” Nature 455 (7217): 1205–1209.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Möller, Gerd. 2012. Geotechnik. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Aldewereld, Huib, Olivier Boissier, Virginia Dignum, Pablo Noriega, and Julian Padget, eds. 2016. Social Coordination Frameworks for Social Technical Systems. Vol. 30. Law, Governance and Technology Series. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Tulyakov, Sergey, Faisal Farooq, and Venu Govindaraju. 2005. “Symmetric Hash Functions for Fingerprint Minutiae.” In Pattern Recognition and Image Analysis: Third International Conference on Advances in Pattern Recognition, ICAPR 2005, Bath, UK, August 22-25, 2005, Proceedings, Part II, edited by Sameer Singh, Maneesha Singh, Chid Apte, and Petra Perner, 30–38. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Philosophical Explorations.

Blog post
Davis, Josh. 2015. “Sumatran Rhino Declared Extinct In The Wild In Malaysia.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1970. Utilization of Consultants and Experts. B-168033. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Buckley, Mike. 2009. “Weaving Into the Glimmer.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Grynbaum, Michael M., and Sydney Ember. 2017. “Who Will Inherit the Throne at Vanity Fair?” New York Times, September 15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Firestein 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Firestein 2007; Sonnenburg and Sonnenburg 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sonnenburg and Sonnenburg 2015)
  • Three authors: (Sreekanth, De Luca, and Strangi 2013)
  • 4 or more authors: (Wang et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titlePhilosophical Explorations
AbbreviationPhilos. Explor.
ISSN (print)1386-9795
ISSN (online)1741-5918

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