How to format your references using the Philippine Political Science Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Philippine Political Science Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brumfiel, Geoff. 2003. “Pumping Row Erodes Hopes for Underground Lab.” Nature 423 (6941): 674.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chong, Curtis R., and David J. Sullivan Jr. 2007. “New Uses for Old Drugs.” Nature 448 (7154): 645–646.
A journal article with 3 authors
Winn, Joshua N., David Rusin, and Christopher S. Kochanek. 2004. “The Central Image of a Gravitationally Lensed Quasar.” Nature 427 (6975): 613–615.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Nagpal, Prashant, Nathan C. Lindquist, Sang-Hyun Oh, and David J. Norris. 2009. “Ultrasmooth Patterned Metals for Plasmonics and Metamaterials.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 325 (5940): 594–597.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dubuisson, Séverine. 2015. Tracking with Particle Filter for High-Dimensional Observation and State Spaces. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Short, Tom, and Roger Harris, eds. 2014. Workforce Development: Strategies and Practices. Singapore: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Kaeslin, Hubert. 2015. “Semiconductor Technology and the Energy Efficiency of ICT.” In ICT Innovations for Sustainability, edited by Lorenz M. Hilty and Bernard Aebischer, 105–111. Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Philippine Political Science Journal.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2014. “Skin-Like Patch Monitors Your Heart.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1997. Financial Audit: District of Columbia Highway Trust Fund’s 1996 Financial Statements. AIMD-98-30. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Reynolds, Paul R. 2004. “Midkine (MK) Regulates Pulmonary Vascular Remodeling During Hypoxia.” Doctoral dissertation, Cincinnati, OH: University of Cincinnati.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, George. 2011. “Underdog’s Feat Is Inspiration for Cricket’s Dreamers.” New York Times, March 6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Brumfiel 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Brumfiel 2003; Chong and Sullivan 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Chong and Sullivan 2007)
  • Three authors: (Winn, Rusin, and Kochanek 2004)
  • 4 or more authors: (Nagpal et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titlePhilippine Political Science Journal
AbbreviationPhilipp. Polit. Sci. J.
ISSN (print)0115-4451
ISSN (online)2165-025X
ScopePolitical Science and International Relations

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