How to format your references using the Philippine Political Science Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Philippine Political Science Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Jaeger, N. I. 2001. “Surface Science. Bridging Gaps and Opening Windows.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 293 (5535): 1601–1602.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zhang, Y., and Y. Xiong. 2001. “A P53 Amino-Terminal Nuclear Export Signal Inhibited by DNA Damage-Induced Phosphorylation.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 292 (5523): 1910–1915.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rappuoli, Rino, Henry I. Miller, and Stanley Falkow. 2002. “Medicine. The Intangible Value of Vaccination.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 297 (5583): 937–939.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Ferguson, Neil, Timothy D. Sharpe, Christopher M. Johnson, Pamela J. Schartau, and Alan R. Fersht. 2007. “Structural Biology: Analysis of ‘downhill’ Protein Folding.” Nature 445 (7129): E14-5; discussion E17-8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Brown, Bruce L., Suzanne B. Hendrix, Dawson W. Hedges, and Timothy B. Smith. 2011. Multivariate Analysis for the Biobehavioral and Social Sciences. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Schwenker, Burkhard. 2007. Making Growth Work: How Companies Can Expand and Become More Efficient. Edited by Stefan Bötzel. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Steinert, Martin, and Stephanie Teufel. 2005. “The European Mobile Data Service Dilemma.” In Mobile Information Systems II: IFIP International Working Conference on Mobile Information Systems, (MOBIS) Leeds, UK, December 6–7, 2005, edited by John Krogstie, Karlheinz Kautz, and David Allen, 63–78. IFIP — The International Federation for Information Processing. Boston, MA: Springer US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Philippine Political Science Journal.

Blog post
Taub, Ben. 2016. “Scientists May Have Implanted An Artificial Vision Into The Brain Of A Mouse.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2008. Safe Routes to School: Progress in Implementing the Program, but a Comprehensive Plan to Evaluate Program Outcomes Is Needed. GAO-08-789. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nguyen, Lisa L. 2017. “Pacific Psychiatric Group: A Business Plan For a Direct Pay Outpatient Psychiatric Practice.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, George. 2014. “Staying on the Island, but Moving a World Away.” New York Times, October 11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Jaeger 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Jaeger 2001; Zhang and Xiong 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Zhang and Xiong 2001)
  • Three authors: (Rappuoli, Miller, and Falkow 2002)
  • 4 or more authors: (Ferguson et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titlePhilippine Political Science Journal
AbbreviationPhilipp. Polit. Sci. J.
ISSN (print)0115-4451
ISSN (online)2165-025X
ScopePolitical Science and International Relations

Other styles