How to format your references using the Philippine Political Science Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Philippine Political Science Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ritvo, Harriet. 2003. “Essays on Science and Society. Fighting for Thirlmere--the Roots of Environmentalism.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 300 (5625): 1510–1511.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zhu, Long, and Jian Wang. 2014. “Arbitrary Manipulation of Spatial Amplitude and Phase Using Phase-Only Spatial Light Modulators.” Scientific Reports 4 (December): 7441.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pearson, P. David, Elizabeth Moje, and Cynthia Greenleaf. 2010. “Literacy and Science: Each in the Service of the Other.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 328 (5977): 459–463.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Knott, Simon R. V., Elvin Wagenblast, Showkhin Khan, Sun Y. Kim, Mar Soto, Michel Wagner, Marc-Olivier Turgeon, et al. 2018. “Asparagine Bioavailability Governs Metastasis in a Model of Breast Cancer.” Nature 554 (7692): 378–381.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kassapoglou, Christos. 2015. Modeling the Effect of Damage in Composite Structures. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Tonchia, Stefano. 2010. Performance Measurement: Linking Balanced Scorecard to Business Intelligence. Edited by Luca Quagini. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Gerhold, Thomas. 2005. “Overview of the Hybrid RANS Code TAU.” In MEGAFLOW - Numerical Flow Simulation for Aircraft Design: Results of the Second Phase of the German CFD Initiative MEGAFLOW, Presented during Its Closing Symposium at DLR, Braunschweig, Germany, December 10 and 11, 2002, edited by Norbert Kroll and Jens K. Fassbender, 81–92. Notes on Numerical Fluid Mechanics and Multidisciplinary Design (NNFM). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Philippine Political Science Journal.

Blog post
Davis, Josh. 2016. “Breakthrough In Understanding Of How Brain Cancers Grow Could Lead To New Therapies.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2016. Transportation Security: Status of GAO Recommendations on TSA’s Security-Related Technology Acquisitions. GAO-16-176. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Clark, Sarah. 2014. “Psychological Resilience, Daily Stressors, and Implications for Physical Activity Levels in Mothers with Young Children.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, David A. 2006. “Seen the Airline’s Movie? Bring Your Own.” New York Times, April 9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ritvo 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Ritvo 2003; Zhu and Wang 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Zhu and Wang 2014)
  • Three authors: (Pearson, Moje, and Greenleaf 2010)
  • 4 or more authors: (Knott et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titlePhilippine Political Science Journal
AbbreviationPhilipp. Polit. Sci. J.
ISSN (print)0115-4451
ISSN (online)2165-025X
ScopePolitical Science and International Relations

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