How to format your references using the Philippine Political Science Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Philippine Political Science Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stajic, Jelena. 2013. “Quantum Information Processing. The Future of Quantum Information Processing. Introduction.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 339 (6124): 1163.
A journal article with 2 authors
Savaglio, S., and V. Carbone. 2000. “Scaling in Athletic World Records.” Nature 404 (6775): 244.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bell, Gordon, Tony Hey, and Alex Szalay. 2009. “Computer Science. Beyond the Data Deluge.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 323 (5919): 1297–1298.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Dore, John E., Roger Lukas, Daniel W. Sadler, and David M. Karl. 2003. “Climate-Driven Changes to the Atmospheric CO2 Sink in the Subtropical North Pacific Ocean.” Nature 424 (6950): 754–757.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kandel, Heinz G. 2005. Verfahrenstechnische Methoden in Der Wirkstoffherstellung. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Wördenweber, Burkard. 2007. Automotive Lighting and Human Vision. Edited by Jörg Wallaschek, Peter Boyce, and Donald D. Hoffman. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Wang, Cheng-Tzu, Chih-Chung Lo, Chia-Hsien Tseng, and Jong-Ming Chang. 2010. “An Information Theoretic Web Site Navigability Classification.” In Intelligent Information and Database Systems: Second International Conference, ACIIDS, Hue City, Vietnam, March 24-26, 2010. Proceedings, Part II, edited by Ngoc Thanh Nguyen, Manh Thanh Le, and Jerzy Świątek, 39–46. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Philippine Political Science Journal.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “Cancer Drug Shows Promise In Treating Spinal Cord Injuries.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1999. Schools And Libraries Program: Actions Taken to Improve Operational Procedures Prior to Committing Funds. RCED-99-51. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hendricks-Harris, Mary Therese. 2012. “Quality Induction: The Effects of Comprehensive Induction on New Teacher Retention and Job Satisfaction.” Doctoral dissertation, St. Charles, MO: Lindenwood University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams, John. 2017. “Mandela’s Prison Letters Are to Be Published.” New York Times, June 27.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Stajic 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Stajic 2013; Savaglio and Carbone 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Savaglio and Carbone 2000)
  • Three authors: (Bell, Hey, and Szalay 2009)
  • 4 or more authors: (Dore et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titlePhilippine Political Science Journal
AbbreviationPhilipp. Polit. Sci. J.
ISSN (print)0115-4451
ISSN (online)2165-025X
ScopePolitical Science and International Relations

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