How to format your references using the Cancer Prevention Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cancer Prevention Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Evans S. PALEONTOLOGY. Four legs too many? Science. 2015;349:374–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Diaz RE, Sebastian T. Electromagnetic limits to radiofrequency (RF) neuronal telemetry. Sci Rep. 2013;3:3535.
A journal article with 3 authors
Manoharan HC, Lutz CP, Eigler DM. Quantum mirages formed by coherent projection of electronic structure. Nature. 2000;403:512–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Ramos D, Gil-Santos E, Malvar O, Llorens JM, Pini V, San Paulo A, et al. Silicon nanowires: where mechanics and optics meet at the nanoscale. Sci Rep. 2013;3:3445.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Masujima M. Applied Mathematical Methods in Theoretical Physics. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2005.
An edited book
Klinkel S, Butenweg C, Lin G, Holtschoppen B, editors. Seismic Design of Industrial Facilities: Proceedings of the International Conference on Seismic Design of Industrial Facilities (SeDIF-Conference). Wiesbaden: Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Grannell C, Sumner V, Synodinos D. Working With Images. In: Sumner V, Synodinos D, editors. The Essential Guide to HTML5 and CSS3 Web Design. Berkeley, CA: Apress; 2012. page 119–44.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cancer Prevention Research.

Blog post
Andrews R. Cockroaches Have “Turbocharged” Bites Five Times Stronger Than Ours [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle: DOD Is Assessing Data on Worldwide Launch Market to Inform New Acquisition Strategy. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2016 Jul. Report No.: GAO-16-661R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
BenVau L. Effects of larval Nosema ceranae infection on adult honey bee (Apis mellifera) morphology and physiology [Doctoral dissertation]. [La Jolla, CA]: University of California San Diego; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Van Witsendavid Montefioregina Paglia BLFGTCSJKCCARBOEJ. Letters TO THE EDITOR; The Arts and Mrs. Mondale Apple Annie Fashions Girth and Great Voices. New York Times. 1978;The New York Times MagazineSM28.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleCancer Prevention Research
AbbreviationCancer Prev. Res. (Phila.)
ISSN (print)1940-6207
ISSN (online)1940-6215
ScopeCancer Research

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