How to format your references using the Cancer Prevention Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cancer Prevention Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wulff K. Examining knowledge of geometry. Science. 2006;312:1309–10; author reply 1309-10.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hawker CJ, Wooley KL. The convergence of synthetic organic and polymer chemistries. Science. 2005;309:1200–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cohen AJ, Mori-Sánchez P, Yang W. Insights into current limitations of density functional theory. Science. 2008;321:792–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Araki J, Nishizawa Y, Nakamura T, Sato T, Naito M, Hatayama N, et al. Anorectal autotransplantation in a canine model: the first successful report in the short term with the non-laparotomy approach. Sci Rep. 2014;4:6312.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
DiMaio MS, Fox JE, Mahoney MJ. Prenatal Diagnosis: Cases & Clinical Challenges. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2010.
An edited book
Bunt H, Bos J, Pulman S, editors. Computing Meaning: Volume 4. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Mottola G. La valvola polmonare. In: Sheppard M, Pepper J, Rigby M, editors. Ecocardiografia clinica. Milano: Springer; 2006. page 79–88.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cancer Prevention Research.

Blog post
Luntz S. Twelve Year Old Discovers New Spider Genus [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Aviation Security: Transportation Security Administration Faces Immediate and Long-Term Challenges. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2002 Jul. Report No.: GAO-02-971T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Himschoot AR. Student perception of relevance of biology content to everyday life: A study in higher education biology courses [Doctoral dissertation]. [Minneapolis, MN]: Capella University; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hollander S. Player’s Dream Takes a Detour in the Bronx. New York Times. 2000;D8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleCancer Prevention Research
AbbreviationCancer Prev. Res. (Phila.)
ISSN (print)1940-6207
ISSN (online)1940-6215
ScopeCancer Research

Other styles