How to format your references using the Cancer Prevention Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cancer Prevention Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Good MF. Immunology. Pasteur approach to a malaria vaccine may take the lead. Science. 2013;341:1352–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bader JS, Chant J. Systems biology. When proteomes collide. Science. 2006;311:187–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
Finlay JC, Small GE, Sterner RW. Human influences on nitrogen removal in lakes. Science. 2013;342:247–50.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Meyzen CM, Toplis MJ, Humler E, Ludden JN, Mével C. A discontinuity in mantle composition beneath the southwest Indian ridge. Nature. 2003;421:731–3.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hellesland J, Challamel N, Casandjian C, Lanos C. Reinforced Concrete Beams, Columns and Frames. Hoboken, NJ USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
Schoen R, editor. Dynamic Demographic Analysis. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Meynard J-M. Innovating in cropping and farming systems. In: Coudel E, Devautour H, Soulard CT, Faure G, Hubert B, editors. Renewing innovation systems in agriculture and food: How to go towards more sustainability? Wageningen: Wageningen Academic Publishers; 2013. page 89–108.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cancer Prevention Research.

Blog post
Andrew E. Liberia Announces New Ebola Death Since Country declared Free of the Disease [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Early Decisions and Delays on the Zilwaukee, Michigan, Bridge Project. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1983 Aug. Report No.: RCED-83-165.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ma B. Improving the performance of hyperspectral target detection [Doctoral dissertation]. [Mississippi State, MS]: Mississippi State University; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Lyman R, Walsh MW. Struggling, San Jose Tests a Way to Cut Benefits. New York Times. 2013;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleCancer Prevention Research
AbbreviationCancer Prev. Res. (Phila.)
ISSN (print)1940-6207
ISSN (online)1940-6215
ScopeCancer Research

Other styles