How to format your references using the Cancer Prevention Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cancer Prevention Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rabiner L. Computer science. The power of speech. Science. 2003;301:1494–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dietl GP, Vermeij GJ. Comment on “Statistical independence of escalatory ecological trends in Phanerozoic marine invertebrates.” Science. 2006;314:925; author reply 925.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chou SY, Keimel C, Gu J. Ultrafast and direct imprint of nanostructures in silicon. Nature. 2002;417:835–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Nomata J, Kondo T, Mizoguchi T, Tamiaki H, Itoh S, Fujita Y. Dark-operative protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase generates substrate radicals by an iron-sulphur cluster in bacteriochlorophyll biosynthesis. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5455.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Karr R. Lead, Sell, or Get Out of the Way. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2009.
An edited book
Rajesh A, Sinha R, editors. Crohn’s Disease: Current Concepts. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Mollenhorst G. Context Overlap and Multiplexity in Personal Relationships. In: Friemel TN, editor. Why Context Matters: Applications of Social Network Analysis. Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften; 2008. page 55–77.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cancer Prevention Research.

Blog post
Andrew D. Why Are Most People Right Handed? The Answer May Be In The Mouths Of Our Ancestors [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. U.S. Preparations for an International Conference on Broadcast Satellites. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1983 Mar. Report No.: RCED-83-121.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Betts K. Ready, Steady, Putt! An Exhibition About the History of Miniature Golf in America [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kovaleski SF, Moynihan C. Well Before Scandals, Cosby’s Wife Faulted Media Treatment of Blacks. New York Times. 2015;C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleCancer Prevention Research
AbbreviationCancer Prev. Res. (Phila.)
ISSN (print)1940-6207
ISSN (online)1940-6215
ScopeCancer Research

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