How to format your references using the Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
May, R. M. (2010). Ecology. Tropical arthropod species, more or less? Science (New York, N.Y.), 329(5987), 41–42.
A journal article with 2 authors
Celi, A., & Tarruell, L. (2015). PHYSICS. Probing the edge with cold atoms. Science (New York, N.Y.), 349(6255), 1450–1451.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lindenmayer, D. B., Laurance, W. F., & Franklin, J. F. (2012). Ecology. Global decline in large old trees. Science (New York, N.Y.), 338(6112), 1305–1306.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Pohl, T., Al-Muqdadi, S. W., Ali, M. H., Fawzi, N. A.-M., Ehrlich, H., & Merkel, B. (2014). Discovery of a living coral reef in the coastal waters of Iraq. Scientific reports, 4, 4250.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Qu, D. (2016). Manufacturing and Managing Customer-Driven Derivatives. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Nedjah, N., & Mourelle, L. de M. (Eds.). (2005). Fuzzy Systems Engineering: Theory and Practice (Vol. 181). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Cesaro, P., & Widner, H. (2006). Lessons Learned From Early Clinical Neural Grafting in Parkinson’s Disease. In P. Brundin & C. W. Olanow (Eds.), Restorative Therapies in Parkinson’s Disease (pp. 78–92). Boston, MA: Springer US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2015, November 12). Cockroaches Have “Turbocharged” Bites Five Times Stronger Than Ours. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2012). Highway Trust Fund: Pilot Program Could Help Determine the Viability of Mileage Fees for Certain Vehicles (No. GAO-13-77). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Giuseffi, F. G. (2014). Investigation of the Influence of the Socratic Method on Leadership Skills among JROTC Cadet Leaders at a Military Boarding School (Doctoral dissertation). Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
McKINLEY, J., & Fitzsimmons, E. G. (2015, October 21). Ride-Sharing Apps See Potential Upstate. New York Times, p. A22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (May 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Celi and Tarruell 2015; May 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Celi and Tarruell 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Pohl et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titlePhenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences
AbbreviationPhenomenol. Cogn. Sci.
ISSN (print)1568-7759
ISSN (online)1572-8676
Cognitive Neuroscience

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