How to format your references using the Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Blow, N. (2007). Genomics: the personal side of genomics. Nature, 449(7162), 627–630.
A journal article with 2 authors
Berry, R. M., & Armitage, J. P. (2008). Microbiology. How bacteria change gear. Science (New York, N.Y.), 320(5883), 1599–1600.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rolland-Lagan, A.-G., Bangham, J. A., & Coen, E. (2003). Growth dynamics underlying petal shape and asymmetry. Nature, 422(6928), 161–163.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Goyon, J., Colin, A., Ovarlez, G., Ajdari, A., & Bocquet, L. (2008). Spatial cooperativity in soft glassy flows. Nature, 454(7200), 84–87.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Binnie, C. (2016). Linux Server Security. Indianapolis, IN, USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Elhanany, I., & Hamdi, M. (Eds.). (2007). High-performance Packet Switching Architectures. London: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Hu, R.-J., Cao, B.-Y., & Zhang, G.-Y. (2014). Posynomial Geometric Programming with Fuzzy Coefficients. In B.-Y. Cao & H. Nasseri (Eds.), Fuzzy Information & Engineering and Operations Research & Management (pp. 43–49). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. (2016, June 16). How Fish And Clean Water Can Protect Coral Reefs From Warming Oceans. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2010). License Suspensions for Nondriving Offenses: Practices in Four States That May Ease the Financial Impact on Low-Income Individuals (No. GAO-10-217). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chhun, S. (2010). Assessing the role of vacuolar trafficking in fifteen candidate env genes at the late endosome to vacuole interface in S. cerevisiae (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M. W. (2016, April 9). House Bill on Puerto Rico Debt Near Completion. New York Times, p. B2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Blow 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Berry and Armitage 2008; Blow 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Berry and Armitage 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Goyon et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titlePhenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences
AbbreviationPhenomenol. Cogn. Sci.
ISSN (print)1568-7759
ISSN (online)1572-8676
Cognitive Neuroscience

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