How to format your references using the Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schulz, E. (2015). Organic chemistry: One catalyst, two reactions. Nature, 517(7534), 280–281.
A journal article with 2 authors
Steinberger, B., & Torsvik, T. H. (2008). Absolute plate motions and true polar wander in the absence of hotspot tracks. Nature, 452(7187), 620–623.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cai, L., Dalal, C. K., & Elowitz, M. B. (2008). Frequency-modulated nuclear localization bursts coordinate gene regulation. Nature, 455(7212), 485–490.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Haramis, A.-P. G., Begthel, H., van den Born, M., van Es, J., Jonkheer, S., Offerhaus, G. J. A., & Clevers, H. (2004). De novo crypt formation and juvenile polyposis on BMP inhibition in mouse intestine. Science (New York, N.Y.), 303(5664), 1684–1686.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Borisenko, V. E., & Ossicini, S. (2012). What is What in the Nanoworld. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Wang, D. (2013). Robust Filtering and Fault Detection of Switched Delay Systems. (P. Shi & W. Wang, Eds.) (Vol. 445). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Dong, J., Chang, H.-D., & Radbruch, A. (2016). Epigenetic Imprinting of Immunological Memory. In W. Doerfler & P. Böhm (Eds.), Epigenetics - A Different Way of Looking at Genetics (pp. 53–67). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2015, February 1). Amazing Bridges Built For Animals. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2004). Spectrum Management: Better Knowledge Needed to Take Advantage of Technologies That May Improve Spectrum Efficiency (No. GAO-04-666). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Abedin, G. (2010). Exploring the potential of art-based education for adolescents with learning disabilities: A case study of engagement in learning through the arts (Doctoral dissertation). University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Oestreich, J. R. (2016, September 13). Inhaling an Era of Intimacy and Beauty. New York Times, p. C4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schulz 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Schulz 2015; Steinberger and Torsvik 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Steinberger and Torsvik 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Haramis et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titlePhenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences
AbbreviationPhenomenol. Cogn. Sci.
ISSN (print)1568-7759
ISSN (online)1572-8676
Cognitive Neuroscience

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