How to format your references using the Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nelson, S. (2008). Big data: The Harvard computers. Nature, 455(7209), 36–37.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sczepanski, J. T., & Joyce, G. F. (2014). A cross-chiral RNA polymerase ribozyme. Nature, 515(7527), 440–442.
A journal article with 3 authors
Freckleton, R. P., Sutherland, W. J., & Watkinson, A. R. (2003). Ecology. Deciding the future of GM crops in Europe. Science (New York, N.Y.), 302(5647), 994–996.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Jedema, F. J., Heersche, H. B., Filip, A. T., Baselmans, J. J. A., & van Wees, B. J. (2002). Electrical detection of spin precession in a metallic mesoscopic spin valve. Nature, 416(6882), 713–716.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bai, Y. (2012). Practical Database Programming with Visual Basic.NET. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Al-Bar, M. A. (2015). Contemporary Bioethics: Islamic Perspective. (H. Chamsi-Pasha, Ed.). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Chanak, P., & Banerjee, I. (2014). Path Discovery for Sinks Mobility in Obstacle Resisting WSNs. In M. Kumar Kundu, D. P. Mohapatra, A. Konar, & A. Chakraborty (Eds.), Advanced Computing, Networking and Informatics- Volume 2: Wireless Networks and Security Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Advanced Computing, Networking and Informatics (ICACNI-2014) (pp. 39–50). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2015, September 1). Quantum Vibrations Controlled For The First Time Ever, Could Help Find Gravitational Waves. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1997). 1998 NASA Budget: Review of Selected Activities (No. NSIAD-97-252R). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Farnham, R. B. (2012). Processing and inpainting of sparse data as applied to atomic force microscopy imaging (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Chira, S. (2013, September 26). When a House Falls in the Forest. New York Times, p. D4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Nelson 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Nelson 2008; Sczepanski and Joyce 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sczepanski and Joyce 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Jedema et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titlePhenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences
AbbreviationPhenomenol. Cogn. Sci.
ISSN (print)1568-7759
ISSN (online)1572-8676
Cognitive Neuroscience

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