How to format your references using the Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smith, D. C. (2001). Marine biology. Expansion of the marine Archaea. Science (New York, N.Y.), 293(5527), 56–57.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rice, C. M., & Saeed, M. (2014). Hepatitis C: Treatment triumphs. Nature, 510(7503), 43–44.
A journal article with 3 authors
Goscé, L., Barton, D. A. W., & Johansson, A. (2014). Analytical modelling of the spread of disease in confined and crowded spaces. Scientific reports, 4, 4856.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Chen, S., Rotaru, A.-E., Shrestha, P. M., Malvankar, N. S., Liu, F., Fan, W., et al. (2014). Promoting interspecies electron transfer with biochar. Scientific reports, 4, 5019.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Holloway, M., & Nwaoha, C. (2012). Dictionary of Industrial Terms. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Weiner, R., & Kelley, M. (Eds.). (2016). Translating Molecular Biomarkers into Clinical Assays: Techniques and Applications (Vol. 21). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
McBride, W. S. (2010). African-American Women, Power, and Freedom in the Contested Landscape of Camp Nelson, Kentucky. In S. Baugher & S. M. Spencer-Wood (Eds.), Archaeology and Preservation of Gendered Landscapes (pp. 95–112). New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, May 12). Mercury-Filled Balloon Popped For Science. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1982). The Impact of Budget Cuts on Three Directorates of the National Science Foundation (No. PAD-82-25). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Moody, V. J. (2012). Examining leadership styles and employee engagement in the public and private sectors (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Wagner, J. (2017, July 31). As Reed Departs the Mets, Prospects Are on Their Way. New York Times, p. B10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smith 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Rice and Saeed 2014; Smith 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rice and Saeed 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Chen et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titlePhenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences
AbbreviationPhenomenol. Cogn. Sci.
ISSN (print)1568-7759
ISSN (online)1572-8676
Cognitive Neuroscience

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