How to format your references using the Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Check, E. (2003). Biologists wary that cash up front could mean cuts later. Nature, 421(6924), 677.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dietrich, W. E., & Perron, J. T. (2006). The search for a topographic signature of life. Nature, 439(7075), 411–418.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bewley, G. P., Lathrop, D. P., & Sreenivasan, K. R. (2006). Superfluid helium: visualization of quantized vortices. Nature, 441(7093), 588.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Bodelier, P. L., Roslev, P., Henckel, T., & Frenzel, P. (2000). Stimulation by ammonium-based fertilizers of methane oxidation in soil around rice roots. Nature, 403(6768), 421–424.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Will, H. (2011). »Sei naiv und mach’ ein Experiment«: Feodor Lynen. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Kamrani, A. K., & Nasr, E. S. A. (Eds.). (2008). Collaborative Engineering: Theory and Practice. Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Brändas, E. J. (2013). Some Biochemical Reflections on Information and Communication. In M. Hotokka, E. J. Brändas, J. Maruani, & G. Delgado-Barrio (Eds.), Advances in Quantum Methods and Applications in Chemistry, Physics, and Biology (pp. 75–98). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, April 14). Snowball Earth: New Study Shows Antarctic Climate Even Gripped The Tropics. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1982). Analysis of NASA’s Fiscal Year 1983 Budget Request for Research and Development To Determine the Amount That Supports DOD’s Programs (No. MASAD-82-33). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zelaya, G. S. (2012). Hopelessness and diabetes: Do Hispanic diabetic patients feel less hopeless eating fruits, vegetables and exercising regularly? (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hager, E. B., & Mazzetti, M. (2015, November 26). Emirates Secretly Sends Colombian Mercenaries to Yemen Fight. New York Times, p. A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Check 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Check 2003; Dietrich and Perron 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Dietrich and Perron 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Bodelier et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titlePhenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences
AbbreviationPhenomenol. Cogn. Sci.
ISSN (print)1568-7759
ISSN (online)1572-8676
Cognitive Neuroscience

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