How to format your references using the Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Seehausen, O. (2015). Evolution: Beauty varies with the light. Nature, 521(7550), 34–35.
A journal article with 2 authors
Finlay, C. C., & Jackson, A. (2003). Equatorially dominated magnetic field change at the surface of Earth’s core. Science (New York, N.Y.), 300(5628), 2084–2086.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kashlinsky, A., Odenwald, S., & Hogan, C. J. (2000). Looking behind the stars. Science (New York, N.Y.), 289(5477), 246–247.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Tomai, T., Mitani, S., Komatsu, D., Kawaguchi, Y., & Honma, I. (2014). Metal-free aqueous redox capacitor via proton rocking-chair system in an organic-based couple. Scientific reports, 4, 3591.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Barker, P., & Chang, J. (2013). Basic Family Therapy. Oxford, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
An edited book
Scior, K., & Werner, S. (Eds.). (2016). Intellectual Disability and Stigma: Stepping Out from the Margins. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK.
A chapter in an edited book
Carter, C. B., & Norton, M. G. (2013). Models, Crystals, and Chemistry. In M. G. Norton (Ed.), Ceramic Materials: Science and Engineering (pp. 73–88). New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2016, August 24). A Tiger’s Roar Is As Unique As A Fingerprint. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1986). NASA’s Shuttle Booster Rocket Motor Procurement (No. 130591). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Shellhouse, K. (2017). The Cretaceous-Paleogene Boundary Deposit in LaSalle Parish, Louisiana (Doctoral dissertation). University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, L. (2007, January 14). Suffolk Seeks Ways to Ease School Taxes. New York Times, p. 14LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Seehausen 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Finlay and Jackson 2003; Seehausen 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Finlay and Jackson 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Tomai et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titlePhenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences
AbbreviationPhenomenol. Cogn. Sci.
ISSN (print)1568-7759
ISSN (online)1572-8676
Cognitive Neuroscience

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