How to format your references using the Pharmacology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pharmacology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Livingstone MS. Is it warm? Is it real? Or just low spatial frequency? Science. 2000 Nov;290(5495):1299b.
A journal article with 2 authors
Thyer R, Ellefson J. Synthetic biology: New letters for life’s alphabet. Nature. 2014 May;509(7500):291–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
Shen Y, Knoll AH, Walter MR. Evidence for low sulphate and anoxia in a mid-Proterozoic marine basin. Nature. 2003 Jun;423(6940):632–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Khang D-Y, Jiang H, Huang Y, Rogers JA. A stretchable form of single-crystal silicon for high-performance electronics on rubber substrates. Science. 2006 Jan;311(5758):208–12.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Retherford RD, Choe MK. Statistical Models for Causal Analysis. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 1993.
An edited book
Sidharth BG, editor. A Century of Ideas: Perspectives from Leading Scientists of the 20th Century. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Pelekis N, Theodoridis Y. Moving Object Database Engines. In: Theodoridis Y, editor. Mobility Data Management and Exploration. New York, NY: Springer; 2014; pp 101–18.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pharmacology.

Blog post
Andrew E. The Theory Of Parallel Universes Is Not Just Maths – It Is Science That Can Be Tested [Internet]. IFLScience. 2015 Sep [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Social Security Numbers: Stronger Protections Needed When Contractors Have Access to SSNs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2006.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Claypool KK. Organizational Success: How the Presence of Happiness in the Workplace Affects Employee Engagement that Leads to Organizational Success. 2017

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J. Ball That Seems Innocuous Closes Door on a Mets Rally. New York Times. 2017 Jul;B8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePharmacology
ISSN (print)0031-7012
ISSN (online)1423-0313
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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