How to format your references using the Pharmacology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pharmacology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wang SC. ESSAYS ON SCIENCE AND SOCIETY: In Search of Einstein’s Genius. Science. 2000 Sep;289(5484):1477.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gonnermann HM, Manga M. Explosive volcanism may not be an inevitable consequence of magma fragmentation. Nature. 2003 Nov;426(6965):432–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hoffecker JF, Elias SA, O’Rourke DH. Anthropology. Out of Beringia? Science. 2014 Feb;343(6174):979–80.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Lanin AA, Fedotov IV, Fedotov AB, Sidorov-Biryukov DA, Zheltikov AM. The phase-controlled Raman effect. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1842.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Nagashima Y. Elementary Particle Physics. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2013.
An edited book
Body-Gendrot S, Spierenburg P, editors. Violence in Europe. New York, NY: Springer; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Balaji V, Seshadri CS. Cohomology of a Moduli Space of Vector Bundles. In: Cartier P, Illusie L, Katz NM, Laumon G, Manin YI, Ribet KA, editors. The Grothendieck Festschrift: A Collection of Articles Written in Honor of the 60th Birthday of Alexander Grothendieck. Boston, MA: Birkhäuser; 2007; pp 87–120.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pharmacology.

Blog post
Taub B. Being Overweight Ages Your Brain By Ten Years [Internet]. IFLScience. 2016 Aug [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Early Childhood Education: What Are the Costs of High-Quality Programs? Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1990.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Green EI. Caregiver wellness: An inquiry of health risks among frontline direct caregivers of the elderly and disabled. 2009

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
McKINLEY JC Jr, Southall A. One Outlier as Homicides in City Decline Significantly. New York Times. 2016 Nov;A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePharmacology
ISSN (print)0031-7012
ISSN (online)1423-0313
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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