How to format your references using the Pharmacology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pharmacology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Oka T: Vibrational dynamics. Taming CH₅+, the “enfant terrible” of chemical structures. Science 2015;347:1313–1314.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wang MH, vom Saal FS: Maternal age and traits in offspring. Nature 2000;407:469–470.
A journal article with 3 authors
Robertson JL, Kolmakova-Partensky L, Miller C: Design, function and structure of a monomeric ClC transporter. Nature 2010;468:844–847.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Oliver D, Lien C-C, Soom M, Baukrowitz T, Jonas P, Fakler B: Functional conversion between A-type and delayed rectifier K+ channels by membrane lipids. Science 2004;304:265–270.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Balan V, Neagu M: Jet Single-Time Lagrange Geometry and Its Applications. Hoboken, NJ, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2011.
An edited book
Schuller M, Sloots TP, James GS, Halliday CL, Carter IWJ (eds): PCR for Clinical Microbiology: An Australian and International Perspective. Dordrecht, Springer Netherlands, 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
McCormack W, Chatterjee D: Technology, Information, and Modern Warfare: Challenges and Prospects in the 21st Century; in Floridi L, Taddeo M (eds): The Ethics of Information Warfare. Cham, Springer International Publishing, 2014, pp 61–70.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pharmacology.

Blog post
Fang J: This Guy Just Raised The Cost Of An HIV Drug By 5000%. IFLScience 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30];Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Highway Safety: NHTSA’s Motorcycle Helmet Activities. Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Galan M: Educational practices to support homeless students 2012;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G: Semifinals Remain an Inner Sanctum Until Further Notice. New York Times 2014;D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePharmacology
ISSN (print)0031-7012
ISSN (online)1423-0313
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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