How to format your references using the Academic Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Academic Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pulverer B. Transparency showcases strength of peer review. Nature. 2010;468(7320):29-31.
A journal article with 2 authors
Flannigan DJ, Suslick KS. Plasma formation and temperature measurement during single-bubble cavitation. Nature. 2005;434(7029):52-55.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wang QD, Gotthelf EV, Lang CC. A faint discrete source origin for the highly ionized iron emission from the Galactic Centre region. Nature. 2002;415(6868):148-150.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Santiago ML, Montano M, Benitez R, et al. Apobec3 encodes Rfv3, a gene influencing neutralizing antibody control of retrovirus infection. Science. 2008;321(5894):1343-1346.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ghosh A, Berg S. Arrow Pushing in Inorganic Chemistry. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
Demazeau Y, Dignum F, Corchado JM, Pérez JB, eds. Advances in Practical Applications of Agents and Multiagent Systems: 8th International Conference on Practical Applications of Agents and Multiagent Systems (PAAMS 2010). Vol 70. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Hörmann G, Herbst M, Eschenbach C. Water Relations at Different Scales. In: Fränzle O, Kappen L, Blume H-P, Dierssen K, eds. Ecosystem Organization of a Complex Landscape: Long-Term Research in the Bornhöved Lake District, Germany. Ecological Studies. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008:101-117.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Academic Medicine.

Blog post
Fang J. Our Home Supercluster Gets a Map and a Name. IFLScience. Published September 3, 2014. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Airline Deregulation: Barriers to Entry Continue to Limit Competition in Several Key Domestic Markets. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1996.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lim RH-J. A stylistic analysis of and performance suggestions for Robert Muczynski’s Second Piano Sonata, Opus 22. 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cook L, Olsen PR. It Started at the Gas Pump. New York Times. May 24, 2009:BU9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleAcademic Medicine
AbbreviationAcad. Med.
ISSN (print)1040-2446
ISSN (online)1938-808X
ScopeGeneral Medicine

Other styles