How to format your references using the Academic Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Academic Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dolan RJ. Emotion, cognition, and behavior. Science. 2002;298(5596):1191-1194.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kummamuru RK, Soh YA. Electrical effects of spin density wave quantization and magnetic domain walls in chromium. Nature. 2008;452(7189):859-863.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jayne BC, Voris HK, Ng PKL. Snake circumvents constraints on prey size. Nature. 2002;418(6894):143.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Pardini M, Bonzano L, Roccatagliata L, Mancardi GL, Bove M. The fatigue-motor performance paradox in multiple sclerosis. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2001.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bielecki TR, Brigo D, Patras F. Credit Risk Frontiers. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
Weisburd D, Feucht T, Hakimi I, Mock L, Perry S, eds. To Protect and To Serve: Policing in an Age of Terrorism. Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Cherifi C, Labatut V, Santucci JF. On Flexible Web Services Composition Networks. In: Cherifi H, Zain JM, El-Qawasmeh E, eds. Digital Information and Communication Technology and Its Applications: International Conference, DICTAP 2011, Dijon, France, June 21-23, 2011. Proceedings, Part I. Communications in Computer and Information Science. Springer; 2011:45-59.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Academic Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew E. Controversial Study Created Airborne Virus Similar To 1918 Pandemic Influenza Virus. IFLScience. Published June 12, 2014. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Information Technology: FBI Is Taking Steps to Develop an Enterprise Architecture, but Much Remains to Be Accomplished. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2005.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Moreau GA. Touch and Psychotherapy: A Journey to the Depths of the Unconscious and Back Again. Doctoral dissertation. Pacifica Graduate Institute; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon M. Amid Storm Recovery, Marathon Expo Opens Doors to Runners. New York Times. November 2, 2012:B10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleAcademic Medicine
AbbreviationAcad. Med.
ISSN (print)1040-2446
ISSN (online)1938-808X
ScopeGeneral Medicine

Other styles