How to format your references using the Academic Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Academic Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sieradzki K. Materials science. Potential solutions for creating responsive materials. Science. 2011;332(6034):1158-1159.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cannon CP, Cannon PJ. Physiology. COX-2 inhibitors and cardiovascular risk. Science. 2012;336(6087):1386-1387.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yang L, Garbe DS, Bashaw GJ. A frazzled/DCC-dependent transcriptional switch regulates midline axon guidance. Science. 2009;324(5929):944-947.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Acharya AP, Rafi M, Woods EC, Gardner AB, Murthy N. Metabolic engineering of lactate dehydrogenase rescues mice from acidosis. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5189.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Miller JM. Chromatography. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2009.
An edited book
Shirase K, Aoyagi S, eds. Service Robotics and Mechatronics: Selected Papers of the International Conference on Machine Automation ICMA2008. Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Riemenschneider MJ, Reifenberger G. Histology and Molecular Genetics. In: Jeremic B, Pitz S, eds. Primary Optic Nerve Sheath Meningioma. Medical Radiology. Springer; 2008:55-66.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Academic Medicine.

Blog post
Luntz S. The Invisible Beauty of Wireless Networks. IFLScience. Published June 27, 2014. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Actions Needed To Improve the Federal Communications Commission’s Financial Disclosure System. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1976.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Robertson-Tessi M. Mathematical Models of Tumor Growth and Therapy. Doctoral dissertation. University of Arizona; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario B. Verses of Civil Rights Anthem ‘We Shall Overcome’ Are Ruled Not Under Copyright. New York Times. September 9, 2017:B5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleAcademic Medicine
AbbreviationAcad. Med.
ISSN (print)1040-2446
ISSN (online)1938-808X
ScopeGeneral Medicine

Other styles